Madhya 23: Life’s Ultimate Goal — Love of Godhead

CC Madhya 23.1

cirād adattaṁ nija-gupta-vittaṁ
sva-prema-nāmāmṛtam aty-udāraḥ
ā-pāmaraṁ yo vitatāra gauraḥ
kṛṣṇo janebhyas tam ahaṁ prapadye
Word for word: 
cirāt — for a long time; adattam — not given; nija-gupta-vittam — His own personal confidential property; sva-prema — of love for Him; nāma — of the holy name; amṛtam — the ambrosia; ati-udāraḥ — most munificent; ā-pāmaram — even down to the lowest of men; yaḥ — one who; vitatāra — distributed; gauraḥ — Śrī Gaurasundara; kṛṣṇaḥ — Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself; janebhyaḥ — to the people in general; tam — to Him; aham — I; prapadye — offer obeisances.
Translation: 
The most munificent Supreme Personality of Godhead, known as Gaurakṛṣṇa, distributed to everyone — even the lowest of men — His own confidential treasury in the form of the nectar of love of Himself and the holy name. This was never given to the people at any time before. I therefore offer my respectful obeisances unto Him.

CC Madhya 23.2

jaya jaya gauracandra jaya nityānanda
jayādvaita-candra jaya gaura-bhakta-vṛnda
Word for word: 
jaya jaya — all glories; gauracandra — to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; jaya — all glories; nityānanda — to Nityānanda Prabhu; jaya — all glories; advaita-candra — to Advaita Ācārya; jaya — all glories; gaura-bhakta-vṛnda — to the devotees of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
Translation: 
All glories to Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu! All glories to Lord Nityānanda! All glories to Advaita Ācārya! And all glories to all the devotees of Lord Caitanya Mahāprabhu!

CC Madhya 23.3

ebe śuna bhakti-phala ‘prema’-prayojana
yāhāra śravaṇe haya bhakti-rasa-jñāna
Word for word: 
ebe śuna — now hear; bhakti-phala — the result of practice of devotional service; prema — love of Godhead; prayojana — the ultimate goal of life; yāhāra śravaṇe — by hearing of which; haya — there is; bhakti-rasa-jñāna — transcendental knowledge of the mellows of devotional service.
Translation: 
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, “Now hear, O Sanātana, about the result of devotional service, which is love of Godhead, life’s ultimate goal. One who hears this description will be enlightened in the transcendental mellows of devotional service.

CC Madhya 23.4

kṛṣṇe rati gāḍha haile ‘prema’-abhidhāna
kṛṣṇa-bhakti-rasera ei ‘sthāyi-bhāva’-nāma
Word for word: 
kṛṣṇe — unto Lord Kṛṣṇa; rati — affection; gāḍha — deep; haile — when it becomes; prema-abhidhāna — called love of God; kṛṣṇa-bhakti-rasera — of the mellows of devotional service to Kṛṣṇa; ei — this; sthāyi-bhāva-nāma — called sthāyi-bhāva.
Translation: 
“When affection for Kṛṣṇa becomes deeper, one attains love of Godhead in devotional service. Such a position is called sthāyi-bhāva, permanent enjoyment of the mellows of devotional service to Kṛṣṇa.

CC Madhya 23.5

śuddha-sattva-viśeṣātmā
prema-sūryāṁśu-sāmya-bhāk
rucibhiś citta-masṛṇya-
kṛd asau bhāva ucyate
Word for word: 
śuddha-sattva — by unadulterated goodness; viśeṣa — distinguished; ātmā — whose nature; prema — of love of God; sūrya — like the sun; aṁśu — a ray; sāmya-bhāk — which is similar to; rucibhiḥ — by different tastes; citta — of the heart; masṛṇya — softness; kṛt — which causes; asau — that softness; bhāvaḥ — emotion; ucyate — is called.
Translation: 
“ ‘When devotional service is executed on the transcendental platform of pure goodness, it is like a sun-ray of love for Kṛṣṇa. At such a time, devotional service causes the heart to be softened by various tastes, and one is then situated in bhāva [emotion].’
Purport: 

This verse is found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.3.1).

CC Madhya 23.6

e dui, — bhāvera ‘svarūpa’, ‘taṭastha’ lakṣaṇa
premera lakṣaṇa ebe śuna, sanātana
Word for word: 
ei dui — these two; bhāvera — of emotion; svarūpa — constitutional; taṭastha — marginal; lakṣaṇa — symptoms; premera — of love; lakṣaṇa — the symptoms; ebe — now; śuna — hear; sanātana — O Sanātana.
Translation: 
“Bhāva [emotion] has two different symptoms — constitutional and marginal. Now, My dear Sanātana, listen to the symptoms of love.
Purport: 

The word śuddha-sattva-viśeṣātmā means “situated on the transcendental platform of pure goodness.” In this way the soul is purified of all material contamination, and this position is called svarūpa-lakṣaṇa, the constitutional symptom of bhāva, emotion. By various tastes, one’s heart is softened, and there is an awakening of one’s loving propensity to render spontaneous service to the Lord. This is called taṭastha-lakṣaṇa, the marginal symptom of bhāva.

CC Madhya 23.7

samyaṅ-masṛṇita-svānto
mamatvātiśayāṅkitaḥ
bhāvaḥ sa eva sāndrātmā
budhaiḥ premā nigadyate
Word for word: 
samyak — completely; masṛṇita-sva-antaḥ — which makes the heart soft; mamatva — of a sense of ownership; atiśaya-aṅkitaḥ — marked with an abundance; bhāvaḥ — emotion; saḥ — that; eva — certainly; sāndra-ātmā — whose nature is very condensed; budhaiḥ — by learned persons; premā — love of Godhead; nigadyate — is described.
Translation: 
“ ‘When that bhāva softens the heart completely, becomes endowed with a great feeling of possessiveness in relation to the Lord and becomes very much condensed and intensified, it is called prema [love of Godhead] by learned scholars.
Purport: 

This verse is also found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.4.1).

CC Madhya 23.8

ananya-mamatā viṣṇau
mamatā prema-saṅgatā
bhaktir ity ucyate bhīṣma-
prahlādoddhava-nāradaiḥ
Word for word: 
ananya-mamatā — having a sense of relationships with no others; viṣṇau — in Lord Viṣṇu, or Kṛṣṇa; mamatā — the sense of ownership; prema-saṅgatā — endowed only with love; bhaktiḥ — devotional service; iti — thus; ucyate — is said; bhīṣma — by Bhīṣma; prahlāda — by Prahlāda Mahārāja; uddhava — by Uddhava; nāradaiḥ — and by Nārada.
Translation: 
“ ‘When one develops an unflinching sense of ownership or possessiveness in relation to Lord Viṣṇu, or, in other words, when one thinks Viṣṇu and no one else to be the only object of love, such an awakening is called bhakti [devotion] by exalted persons like Bhīṣma, Prahlāda, Uddhava and Nārada.’
Purport: 

This verse, quoted from the Nārada-pañcarātra, is found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.4.2).

CC Madhya 23.9

kona bhāgye kona jīvera ‘śraddhā’ yadi haya
tabe sei jīva ‘sādhu-saṅga’ ye karaya
Word for word: 
kona bhāgye — by some good fortune; kona jīvera — of some living entity; śraddhā yadi haya — if there is faith; tabe — then; sei jīva — that living entity; sādhu-saṅga — association with devotees; ye — certainly; karaya — makes.
Translation: 
“If, by good fortune, a living entity develops faith in Kṛṣṇa, he begins to associate with devotees.

CC Madhya 23.10

sādhu-saṅga haite haya ‘śravaṇa-kīrtana’
sādhana-bhaktye haya ‘sarvānartha-nivartana’
Word for word: 
sādhu-saṅga haite — from association with devotees; haya — there is; śravaṇa-kīrtana — hearing, chanting and so on; sādhana-bhaktye — by devotional service; haya — there is; sarva — all; anartha-nivartana — disappearance of unwanted things.
Translation: 
“When one is encouraged in devotional service by the association of devotees, one becomes free from all unwanted contamination by following the regulative principles and chanting and hearing.

CC Madhya 23.11

anartha-nivṛtti haile bhaktye ‘niṣṭhā’ haya
niṣṭhā haite śravaṇādye ‘ruci’ upajaya
Word for word: 
anartha-nivṛtti — disappearance of all unwanted contamination; haile — when there is; bhaktye — in devotional service; niṣṭhā — firm faith; haya — there is; niṣṭhā haite — from such firm faith; śravaṇa-ādye — in hearing, chanting and so on; ruci — taste; upajaya — awakens.
Translation: 
“When one is freed from all unwanted contamination, he advances with firm faith. When firm faith in devotional service awakens, a taste for hearing and chanting also awakens.

CC Madhya 23.12

ruci haite bhaktye haya ‘āsakti’ pracura
āsakti haite citte janme kṛṣṇe prīty-aṅkura
Word for word: 
ruci haite — from such a taste; bhaktye — in devotional service; haya — there is; āsakti — attachment; pracura — deep; āsakti haite — from attachment; citte — within the heart; janme — appears; kṛṣṇe — for Kṛṣṇa; prīti-aṅkura — the seed of affection.
Translation: 
“After taste is awakened, a deep attachment arises, and from that attachment the seed of love for Kṛṣṇa grows in the heart.

CC Madhya 23.13

sei ‘bhāva’ gāḍha haile dhare ‘prema’-nāma
sei premā ‘prayojana’ sarvānanda-dhāma
Word for word: 
sei bhāva — that emotional condition; gāḍha haile — when it becomes intensified; dhare — takes; prema-nāma — the name love of Godhead; sei premā — that love of Godhead; prayojana — the ultimate goal of life; sarva-ānanda-dhāma — the reservoir of all pleasure.
Translation: 
“When that ecstatic emotional stage intensifies, it is called love of Godhead. Such love is life’s ultimate goal and the reservoir of all pleasure.
Purport: 

Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura summarizes this growth of love of Godhead as a gradual process. A person becomes interested in devotional service by some good fortune. Eventually he becomes interested in pure devotional service without material contamination. At that point, a person wants to associate with devotees. As a result of this association, he becomes more and more interested in discharging devotional service and hearing and chanting. The more one is interested in hearing and chanting, the more he is purified of material contamination. Liberation from material contamination is called anartha-nivṛtti, indicating a diminishing of all unwanted things. This is the test of development in devotional service. If one actually develops the devotional attitude, he must be freed from the material contamination of illicit sex, intoxication, gambling and meat-eating. These are the preliminary symptoms. When one is freed from all material contamination, his firm faith in devotional service awakens. When firm faith develops, a taste arises, and by that taste one becomes attached to devotional service. When this attachment intensifies, the seed of love of Kṛṣṇa fructifies. This position is called prīti or rati (affection) or bhāva (emotion). When rati intensifies, it is called love of Godhead. This love of Godhead is actually life’s highest perfection and the reservoir of all pleasure.

Thus devotional life is divided into two stages — sādhana-bhakti and bhāva-bhakti. Sādhana-bhakti refers to the development of devotional service through the regulative principles. The basic principle for the execution of devotional service is faith. Above that, there is association with devotees, and after that there is initiation by a bona fide spiritual master. After initiation, when one follows the regulative principles of devotional service, one becomes freed from all unwanted things. In this way one becomes firmly fixed and gradually develops a taste for devotional service. The more the taste grows, the more one desires to render service to the Lord. In this way one becomes attached to a particular mellow in the Lord’s service — śānta, dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya or madhura. As a result of such attachment, bhāva develops. Bhāva-bhakti is the platform of purified goodness. By such purified goodness, one’s heart melts in devotional service. Bhāva-bhakti is the first seed of love of Godhead. This emotional stage is there before one attains pure love. When that emotional stage intensifies, it is called prema-bhakti, or transcendental love of Godhead. This gradual process is also described in the following two verses, which are found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.4.15-16).

CC Madhya 23.14-15

ādau śraddhā tataḥ sādhu-
saṅgo ’tha bhajana-kriyā
tato ’nartha-nivṛttiḥ syāt
tato niṣṭhā rucis tataḥ
athāsaktis tato bhāvas
tataḥ premābhyudañcati
sādhakānām ayaṁ premṇaḥ
prādurbhāve bhavet kramaḥ
Word for word: 
ādau — in the beginning; śraddhā — firm faith, or disinterest in material affairs and interest in spiritual advancement; tataḥ — thereafter; sādhu-saṅgaḥ — association with pure devotees; atha — then; bhajana-kriyā — performance of devotional service to Kṛṣṇa (surrendering to the spiritual master and being encouraged by the association of devotees, so that initiation takes place); tataḥ — thereafter; anartha-nivṛttiḥ — the diminishing of all unwanted habits; syāt — there should be; tataḥ — then; niṣṭhā — firm faith; ruciḥ — taste; tataḥ — thereafter; atha — then; āsaktiḥ — attachment; tataḥ — then; bhāvaḥ — emotion or affection; tataḥ — thereafter; prema — love of God; abhyudañcati — arises; sādhakānām — of the devotees practicing Kṛṣṇa consciousness; ayam — this; premṇaḥ — of love of Godhead; prādurbhāve — in the appearance; bhavet — is; kramaḥ — the chronological order.
Translation: 
“ ‘In the beginning there must be faith. Then one becomes interested in associating with pure devotees. Thereafter one is initiated by the spiritual master and executes the regulative principles under his orders. Thus one is freed from all unwanted habits and becomes firmly fixed in devotional service. Thereafter, one develops taste and attachment. This is the way of sādhana-bhakti, the execution of devotional service according to the regulative principles. Gradually emotions intensify, and finally there is an awakening of love. This is the gradual development of love of Godhead for the devotee interested in Kṛṣṇa consciousness.’

CC Madhya 23.16

satāṁ prasaṅgān mama vīrya-saṁvido
bhavanti hṛt-karṇa-rasāyanāḥ kathāḥ
taj-joṣaṇād āśv apavarga-vartmani
śraddhā ratir bhaktir anukramiṣyati
Word for word: 
satām — of the devotees; prasaṅgāt — by the intimate association; mama — of Me; vīrya-saṁvidaḥ — talks full of spiritual potency; bhavanti — appear; hṛt — to the heart; karṇa — and to the ears; rasa-āyanāḥ — a source of sweetness; kathāḥ — talks; tat — of them; joṣaṇāt — from proper cultivation; āśu — quickly; apavarga — of liberation; vartmani — on the path; śraddhā — faith; ratiḥ — attraction; bhaktiḥ — love; anukramiṣyati — will follow one after another.
Translation: 
“ ‘The spiritually powerful message of Godhead can be properly discussed only in a society of devotees, and it is greatly pleasing to hear in that association. If one hears from devotees, the way of transcendental experience quickly opens, and gradually one attains firm faith that in due course develops into attraction and devotion.’
Purport: 

This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (3.25.25).

CC Madhya 23.17

yāṅhāra hṛdaye ei bhāvāṅkura haya
tāṅhāte eteka cihna sarva-śāstre kaya
Word for word: 
yāṅhāra — of whom; hṛdaye — in the heart; ei — this; bhāva-aṅkura — seed of emotion; haya — there is; tāṅhāte — in him; eteka — these; cihna — symptoms; sarva-śāstre — all revealed scriptures; kaya — say.
Translation: 
“If one actually has the seed of transcendental emotion in his heart, the symptoms will be visible in his activities. That is the verdict of all revealed scriptures.

CC Madhya 23.18-19

kṣāntir avyartha-kālatvaṁ
viraktir māna-śūnyatā
āśā-bandhaḥ samutkaṇṭhā
nāma-gāne sadā ruciḥ
āsaktis tad-guṇākhyāne
prītis tad-vasati-sthale
ity-ādayo ’nubhāvāḥ syur
jāta-bhāvāṅkure jane
Word for word: 
kṣāntiḥ — forgiveness; avyartha-kālatvam — being free from wasting time; viraktiḥ — detachment; māna-śūnyatā — absence of false prestige; āśā-bandhaḥ — hope; samutkaṇṭhā — eagerness; nāma-gāne — in chanting the holy names; sadā — always; ruciḥ — taste; āsaktiḥ — attachment; tat — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; guṇa-ākhyāne — in describing the transcendental qualities; prītiḥ — affection; tat — His; vasati-sthale — for places of residence (the temple or holy places); iti — thus; ādayaḥ — and so on; anubhāvāḥ — the signs; syuḥ — are; jāta — developed; bhāva-aṅkure — whose seed of ecstatic emotion; jane — in a person.
Translation: 
“ ‘When the seed of ecstatic emotion for Kṛṣṇa fructifies, the following nine symptoms manifest in one’s behavior: forgiveness, concern that time should not be wasted, detachment, absence of false prestige, hope, eagerness, a taste for chanting the holy name of the Lord, attachment to descriptions of the transcendental qualities of the Lord, and affection for those places where the Lord resides — that is, a temple or a holy place like Vṛndāvana. These are all called anubhāva, subordinate signs of ecstatic emotion. They are visible in a person in whose heart the seed of love of God has begun to fructify.’
Purport: 

These two verses are found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.3.25-26).

CC Madhya 23.20

ei nava prīty-aṅkura yāṅra citte haya
prākṛta-kṣobhe tāṅra kṣobha nāhi haya
Word for word: 
ei — this; nava — nine; prīti-aṅkura — fructification of the seed of love; yāṅra — of whom; citte — in the mind; haya — there is; prākṛta — material; kṣobhe — in agitation; tāṅra — his; kṣobha — agitation; nāhi haya — there is not.
Translation: 
“If love for Kṛṣṇa in a seedling state has fructified in one’s heart, one is not agitated by material things.

CC Madhya 23.21

taṁ mopayātaṁ pratiyantu viprā
gaṅgā ca devī dhṛta-cittam īśe
dvijopasṛṣṭaḥ kuhakas takṣako vā
daśatv alaṁ gāyata viṣṇu-gāthāḥ
Word for word: 
tam — him; — me; upayātam — surrendered; pratiyantu — you may know; viprāḥ — O brāhmaṇas; gaṅgā — mother Ganges; ca — and; devī — the demigoddess; dhṛta — offered; cittam — whose mind; īśe — unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; dvija-upasṛṣṭaḥ — created by the brāhmaṇa; kuhakaḥ — some trickery; takṣakaḥ — snake-bird; — or; daśatu — let it bite; alam — never mind; gāyata — chant; viṣṇu-gāthāḥ — the holy names of Lord Viṣṇu.
Translation: 
“ ‘O brāhmaṇas, just accept me as a completely surrendered soul, and let mother Ganges, the representative of the Lord, also accept me in that way, for I have already taken the lotus feet of the Lord into my heart. Let the snakebird — or whatever magical thing the brāhmaṇa created — bite me at once. I only desire that you all continue singing the deeds of Lord Viṣṇu.’
Purport: 

This is a verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.19.15) spoken by Mahārāja Parīkṣit while he was sitting on the bank of the Ganges expecting to be bitten by a snake-bird summoned by the curse of a brāhmaṇa boy named Śṛṅgi, who was the son of a great sage named Śamīka. News of the curse was conveyed to the King, who prepared for his imminent death. Many great saintly persons, sages, brāhmaṇas, kings and demigods came to see him in his last days. Mahārāja Parīkṣit, however, was not at all afraid of being bitten by the snake-bird. Indeed, he requested all the great personalities assembled to continue chanting the holy name of Lord Viṣṇu.

CC Madhya 23.22

kṛṣṇa-sambandha vinā kāla vyartha nāhi yāya
Word for word: 
kṛṣṇa-sambandha vinā — without a connection with Kṛṣṇa; kāla — time; vyartha — useless; nāhi yāya — does not become.
Translation: 
“Not a moment should be lost. Every moment should be utilized for Kṛṣṇa or connected with Him.
Purport: 

Mahārāja Parīkṣit’s expression of anxiety is explained in this verse. He says, “Let whatever is destined to happen take place. It doesn’t matter. Just let me see that not a moment of my time is wasted without a relationship with Kṛṣṇa.” One has to tolerate all obstacles on the path of Kṛṣṇa consciousness, and one has to see that not a moment of his life is wasted outside of Kṛṣṇa’s service.

CC Madhya 23.23

vāgbhiḥ stuvanto manasā smarantas
tanvā namanto ’py aniśaṁ na tṛptāḥ
bhaktāḥ śravan-netra-jalāḥ samagram
āyur harer eva samarpayanti
Word for word: 
vāgbhiḥ — by words; stuvantaḥ — offering prayers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; manasā — by the mind; smarantaḥ — remembering; tanvā — by the body; namantaḥ — offering obeisances; api — although; aniśam — all the time; na tṛptāḥ — not satisfied; bhaktāḥ — the devotees; śravat — shedding; netra-jalāḥ — tears from the eyes; samagram — the whole; āyuḥ — life; hareḥ — to Kṛṣṇa; eva — only; samarpayanti — dedicate.
Translation: 
“ ‘With their words, they offer prayers to the Lord. With their minds, they always remember the Lord. With their bodies, they offer obeisances to the Lord. Despite all these activities, they are still not satisfied. This is the nature of pure devotees. Shedding tears from their eyes, they dedicate their whole lives to the Lord’s service.’
Purport: 

This verse from the Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya is found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.3.29).

CC Madhya 23.24

bhukti, siddhi, indriyārtha tāre nāhi bhāya
Word for word: 
bhukti — material enjoyment; siddhi — mystic power; indriya-artha — the objects of the senses; tāre — unto him; nāhi bhāya — do not appeal.
Translation: 
“In the material field, people are interested in material enjoyment, mystic power and sense gratification. But these things do not appeal to the devotee at all.

CC Madhya 23.25

yo dustyajān dāra-sutān
suḥṛd-rājyaṁ hṛdi-spṛśaḥ
jahau yuvaiva mala-vad
uttamaḥśloka-lālasaḥ
Word for word: 
yaḥ — who (Bharata Mahārāja); dustyajān — difficult to give up; dāra-sutān — wife and children; suhṛt — friends; rājyam — kingdom; hṛdi-spṛśaḥ — dear to the core of the heart; jahau — gave up; yuvā — youthful; eva — at that time; mala-vat — like stool; uttamaḥ-śloka-lālasaḥ — being captivated by the transcendental qualities, pastimes and association of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Translation: 
“ ‘King Bharata was very eager to attain the association of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, who is called Uttamaḥśloka because poems and prayers are offered to Him for His favor. In his youth, King Bharata gave up his attractive wife and children, as well as his beloved friends and opulent kingdom, just as one gives up stool after passing it.’
Purport: 

These are the signs of virakti (detachment) found in a person who has developed bhāva, the preliminary stage of love of Godhead. This verse is quoted from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (5.14.43).

CC Madhya 23.26

‘sarvottama’ āpanāke ‘hīna’ kari māne
Word for word: 
sarva-uttama — although standing above all; āpanāke — himself; hīna kari — as the lowest; māne — considers.
Translation: 
“Although a pure devotee’s standard is above all, he still considers himself to be in the lowest stage of life.

CC Madhya 23.27

harau ratiṁ vahann eṣa
narendrāṇāṁ śikhā-maṇiḥ
bhikṣām aṭann ari-pure
śva-pākam api vandate
Word for word: 
harau — toward the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ratim — affection; vahan — carrying; eṣaḥ — this one; nara-indrāṇām — of all the kings; śikhā-maṇiḥ — brilliant crown jewel; bhikṣām — begging alms; aṭan — wandering for; ari-pure — even in the city of enemies; śva-pākam — the fifth-grade caṇḍālas; api — even; vandate — worships.
Translation: 
“ ‘King Bhagīratha always carried affection for Kṛṣṇa within his heart. Although King Bhagīratha was the crown jewel of kings, he was still wandering about and begging alms in the city of his enemies. He was even offering respects to caṇḍālas, low-class men who eat dogs.’
Purport: 

This is a quotation from the Padma Purāṇa.

CC Madhya 23.28

‘kṛṣṇa kṛpā karibena’ — dṛḍha kari’ jāne
Word for word: 
kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; kṛpā karibena — will show His mercy; dṛḍha kari’ — making firm; jāne — he believes.
Translation: 
“A fully surrendered devotee always hopes that Lord Kṛṣṇa will be kind to him. This hope is very firm in him.

CC Madhya 23.29

na premā śravaṇādi-bhaktir api vā yogo ’tha vā vaiṣṇavo
jñānaṁ vā śubha-karma vā kiyad aho saj-jātir apy asti vā
hīnārthādhika-sādhake tvayi tathāpy acchedya-mūlā satī
he gopī-jana-vallabha vyathayate hā hā mad-āśaiva mām
Word for word: 
na — not; premā — love of Godhead; śravaṇa-ādi — consisting of chanting, hearing and so on; bhaktiḥ — devotional service; api — also; — or; yogaḥ — the power of mystic yoga; atha — or; vaiṣṇavaḥ — befitting a devotee; jñānam — knowledge; — or; śubha-karma — pious activities; — or; kiyat — a little; aho — O my Lord; sat-jātiḥ — birth in a good family; api — even; asti — there is; — or; hīna-artha-adhika-sādhake — who bestows greater benedictions upon one who is fallen and possesses no good qualities; tvayi — unto You; tathā-api — still; acchedya-mūlā — whose root is uncuttable; satī — being; he — O; gopī-jana-vallabha — most dear friend of the gopīs; vyathayate — gives pain; — alas; mat — my; āśā — hope; eva — certainly; mām — to me.
Translation: 
“ ‘O my Lord, I do not have any love for You, nor am I qualified for discharging devotional service by chanting and hearing. Nor do I possess the mystic power of a Vaiṣṇava, knowledge or pious activities. Nor do I belong to a very high-caste family. On the whole, I do not possess anything. Still, O beloved of the gopīs, because You bestow Your mercy on the most fallen, I have an unbreakable hope that is constantly in my heart. That hope is always giving me pain.’
Purport: 

This verse is found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.3.35).

CC Madhya 23.30

samutkaṇṭhā haya sadā lālasā-pradhāna
Word for word: 
samutkaṇṭhā — eagerness; haya — is; sadā — always; lālasā — ardent desire; pradhāna — chiefly characterized by.
Translation: 
“This eagerness is chiefly characterized by an ardent desire to associate with the Lord.

CC Madhya 23.31

tvac-chaiśavaṁ tri-bhuvanādbhutam ity avehi
mac-cāpalaṁ ca tava vā mama vādhigamyam
tat kiṁ karomi viralaṁ muralī-vilāsi
mugdhaṁ mukhāmbujam udīkṣitum īkṣaṇābhyām
Word for word: 
tvat — Your; śaiśavam — early age; tri-bhuvana — within the three worlds; adbhutam — wonderful; iti — thus; avehi — know; mat-cāpalam — My unsteadiness; ca — and; tava — of You; — or; mama — of Me; — or; adhigamyam — to by understood; tat — that; kim — what; karomi — I do; viralam — in solitude; muralī-vilāsi — O player of the flute; mugdham — attractive; mukha-ambujam — lotuslike face; udīkṣitum — to see sufficiently; īkṣaṇābhyām — by the eyes.
Translation: 
“ ‘O Kṛṣṇa, O flute-player, the sweetness of Your early age is wonderful within these three worlds. You know My unsteadiness, and I know Yours. No one else knows about this. I want to see Your beautiful, attractive face somewhere in a solitary place, but how can this be accomplished?’
Purport: 

This is a verse from the Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta (32).

CC Madhya 23.32

nāma-gāne sadā ruci, laya kṛṣṇa-nāma
Word for word: 
nāma-gāne — in chanting the holy names; sadā — constantly; ruci — taste, relish; laya — takes; kṛṣṇa-nāma — the Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra.
Translation: 
“Due to having great relish for the holy name, one is inclined to chant the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra constantly.

CC Madhya 23.33

rodana-bindu-maranda-syandi-dṛg-indīvarādya govinda
tava madhura-svara-kaṇṭhī gāyati nāmāvalīṁ bālā
Word for word: 
rodana-bindu — with teardrops; maranda — like the nectar or juice of flowers; syandi — pouring; dṛk-indīvarā — whose lotus eyes; adya — today; govinda — O my Lord Govinda; tava — Your; madhura-svara-kaṇṭhī — who has a very sweet voice; gāyati — sings; nāma-āvalīm — holy names; bālā — this young girl (Rādhikā).
Translation: 
“ ‘O Govinda, this youthful girl named Rādhikā is today constantly pouring forth tears like nectar falling from flowers as She sings Your holy names in a sweet voice.’
Purport: 

This verse is found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.3.38).

CC Madhya 23.34

kṛṣṇa-guṇākhyāne haya sarvadā āsakti
Word for word: 
kṛṣṇa-guṇa-ākhyāne — in describing the transcendental qualities of Kṛṣṇa; haya — there is; sarvadā — always; āsakti — attachment.
Translation: 
“At this stage of bhāva, a devotee has awakened the tendency to chant and describe the transcendental qualities of the Lord. He has attachment for this process.

CC Madhya 23.35

madhuraṁ madhuraṁ vapur asya vibhor
madhuraṁ madhuraṁ vadanaṁ madhuram
madhu-gandhi mṛdu-smitam etad aho
madhuraṁ madhuraṁ madhuraṁ madhuram
Word for word: 
madhuram — sweet; madhuram — sweet; vapuḥ — the transcendental form; asya — His; vibhoḥ — of the Lord; madhuram — sweet; madhuram — sweet; vadanam — face; madhuram — more sweet; madhu-gandhi — the fragrance of honey; mṛdu-smitam — soft smiling; etat — this; aho — O my Lord; madhuram — sweet; madhuram — sweet; madhuram — sweet; madhuram — still more sweet.
Translation: 
“ ‘O my Lord, the transcendental body of Kṛṣṇa is very sweet, and His face is even sweeter than His body. But His soft smile, which has the fragrance of honey, is sweeter still.’
Purport: 

This is a verse quoted from Bilvamaṅgala Ṭhākura’s Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta (92).

CC Madhya 23.36

kṛṣṇa-līlā-sthāne kare sarvadā vasati
Word for word: 
kṛṣṇa-līlā-sthāne — in the place where Kṛṣṇa has His pastimes; kare — makes; sarvadā — always; vasati — abode.
Translation: 
“A devotee absorbed in ecstatic emotion for Kṛṣṇa always resides in a place where Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes were performed.

CC Madhya 23.37

kadāhaṁ yamunā-tīre
nāmāni tava kīrtayan
udbāṣpaḥ puṇḍarīkākṣa
racayiṣyāmi tāṇḍavam
Word for word: 
kadā — when; aham — I; yamunā-tīre — on the bank of the Yamunā; nāmāni — holy names; tava — Your; kīrtayan — chanting; udbāṣpaḥ — full of tears; puṇḍarīka-akṣa — O lotus-eyed one; racayiṣyāmi — I shall create; tāṇḍavam — dancing like a madman.
Translation: 
“ ‘O Lord Puṇḍarīkākṣa, while chanting Your holy name with tears in my eyes, when shall I dance in ecstasy on the bank of the Yamunā?’
Purport: 

This verse is found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.2.156).

CC Madhya 23.38

kṛṣṇe ‘ratira’ cihna ei kailuṅ vivaraṇa
‘kṛṣṇa-premera’ cihna ebe śuna sanātana
Word for word: 
kṛṣṇe — for Kṛṣṇa; ratira — of attraction; cihna — the symptoms; ei — all these; kailuṅ vivaraṇa — I have described; kṛṣṇa-premera — of love for Lord Kṛṣṇa; cihna — the symptoms; ebe — now; śuna sanātana — please hear, Sanātana.
Translation: 
“These are the symptoms of a person who has developed attraction [bhāva] for Kṛṣṇa. Now let Me describe the symptoms of a person who is actually elevated to love of Kṛṣṇa. O Sanātana, please hear this from Me.

CC Madhya 23.39

yāṅra citte kṛṣṇa-premā karaye udaya
tāṅra vākya, kriyā, mudrā vijñeha nā bujhaya
Word for word: 
yāṅra citte — in whose heart; kṛṣṇa-premā — love of Kṛṣṇa; karaye udaya — awakens; tāṅra — his; vākya — words; kriyā — activities; mudrā — symptoms; vijñeha — even a learned scholar; bujhaya — does not understand.
Translation: 
“Even the most learned man cannot understand the words, activities and symptoms of a person situated in love of Godhead.

CC Madhya 23.40

dhanyasyāyaṁ nava-premā
yasyonmīlati cetasi
antar-vāṇibhir apy asya
mudrā suṣṭhu su-durgamā
Word for word: 
dhanyasya — of a most fortunate person; ayam — this; navaḥ — new; premā — love of Godhead; yasya — of whom; unmīlati — manifests; cetasi — in the heart; antar-vāṇibhiḥ — by persons well versed in the śāstras; api — even; asya — of him; mudrā — symptoms; suṣṭhu — exceedingly; su-durgamā — difficult to understand.
Translation: 
“ ‘Even a most learned scholar cannot understand the activities and symptoms of an exalted personality in whose heart love of Godhead has awakened.’
Purport: 

This verse is also found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.4.17).

CC Madhya 23.41

evaṁ-vrataḥ sva-priya-nāma-kīrtyā
jātānurāgo druta-citta uccaiḥ
hasaty atho roditi rauti gāyaty
unmāda-van nṛtyati loka-bāhyaḥ
Word for word: 
evam-vrataḥ — when one thus engages in a vow to chant and dance; sva — own; priya — very dear; nāma — the holy name; kīrtyā — by chanting; jāta — in this way develops; anurāgaḥ — attachment; druta-cittaḥ — very eagerly; uccaiḥ — loudly; hasati — laughs; atho — also; roditi — cries; rauti — becomes agitated; gāyati — chants; unmāda-vat — like a madman; nṛtyati — dances; loka-bāhyaḥ — not caring for outsiders.
Translation: 
“ ‘When a person is actually advanced and takes pleasure in chanting the holy name of the Lord, who is very dear to him, he is agitated and loudly chants the holy name. He also laughs, cries, becomes agitated and chants just like a madman, not caring for outsiders.’
Purport: 

This verse is quoted from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.2.40).

CC Madhya 23.42

premā krame bāḍi’ haya — sneha, māna, praṇaya
rāga, anurāga, bhāva, mahābhāva haya
Word for word: 
premā — love of God; krame — gradually; bāḍi’ — increasing; haya — is; sneha — affection; māna — indignation due to affection; praṇaya — love; rāga — attachment; anurāga — subattachment; bhāva — ecstasy; mahā-bhāva — exalted ecstasy; haya — is.
Translation: 
“Love of Godhead increases and is manifested as affection, counterlove, love, attachment, subattachment, ecstasy and sublime ecstasy.

CC Madhya 23.43

bīja, ikṣu, rasa, guḍa tabe khaṇḍa-sāra
śarkarā, sitā-michari, śuddha-michari āra
Word for word: 
bīja — seeds; ikṣu — sugarcane plants; rasa — juice; guḍa — molasses; tabe — then; khaṇḍa-sāra — crude sugar; śarkarā — sugar; sitā-michari — sugar candy; śuddha-michari — rock candy; āra — also.
Translation: 
“This development is compared to sugarcane seeds, sugarcane plants, sugarcane juice, molasses, crude sugar, refined sugar, sugar candy and rock candy.

CC Madhya 23.44

ihā yaiche krame nirmala, krame bāḍe svāda
rati-premādira taiche bāḍaye āsvāda
Word for word: 
ihā — this; yaiche — like; krame — by succession; nirmala — pure; krame — gradually; bāḍe — increases; svāda — taste; rati — from attachment; prema-ādira — of love of Godhead and so on; taiche — in that way; bāḍaye — increases; āsvāda — taste.
Translation: 
“One should understand that just as the taste of sugar increases as it is gradually purified, so when love of Godhead increases from rati, which is compared to the beginning seed, its taste increases.

CC Madhya 23.45

adhikāri-bhede rati — pañca parakāra
śānta, dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya, madhura āra
Word for word: 
adhikāri — of the possessor; bhede — according to differences; rati — attachment; pañca parakāra — five varieties; śānta — neutral; dāsya — servitude; sakhya — friendship; vātsalya — parental love; madhura — conjugal love; āra — also.
Translation: 
“According to the candidate possessing these transcendental qualities [sneha, māna and so on], there are five transcendental mellows — neutrality, servitorship, friendship, parental love and conjugal love.
Purport: 

In the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.3.41.44), rati (attraction) is thus described:

vyaktaṁ masṛṇitevāntarlakṣyate rati-lakṣaṇam
mumukṣu-prabhṛtīnāṁ ced
bhaved eṣā ratir na hi

kintu bāla-camatkāra-kārī tac-cihna-vīkṣayā
abhijñena subodho ’yaṁ
raty-ābhāsaḥ prakīrtitaḥ

“The real symptoms of the fructification of the seed of love (rati) are manifested because the heart is melted. When such symptoms are found among speculators and fruitive actors, they cannot be accepted as real symptoms of attachment. … Foolish people without knowledge of devotional service praise such symptoms of attachment even when they are based on something other than a desire to serve Kṛṣṇa. However, one who is expert in devotional service calls such symptoms raty-ābhāsa, a mere glimpse of attachment.”

CC Madhya 23.46

ei pañca sthāyī bhāva haya pañca ‘rasa’
ye-rase bhakta ‘sukhī’, kṛṣṇa haya ‘vaśa’
Word for word: 
ei pañca — these five kinds of transcendental mellows; sthāyī bhāva — permanent ecstatic moods; haya — become; pañca rasa — five kinds of transcendental mellows; ye-rase — in a particular mellow; bhakta sukhī — a devotee becomes happy; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; haya — becomes; vaśa — under the control.
Translation: 
“These five transcendental mellows exist permanently. The devotee may be attracted to one of these mellows, and thus he becomes happy. Kṛṣṇa also becomes inclined toward such a devotee and comes under his control.
Purport: 

In the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.5.1), sthāyi-bhāva, permanent ecstasy, is thus described:

aviruddhān viruddhāṁś cabhāvān yo vaśatāṁ nayan
su-rājeva virājeta
sa sthāyī bhāva ucyate
sthāyī bhāvo ’tra sa proktaḥ
śrī-kṛṣṇa-viṣayā ratiḥ

“These moods (bhāvas) bring under control the favorable ecstasies (such as laughing) and unfavorable ecstasies (such as anger). When these moods continue to remain as kings, they are called sthāyi-bhāva, or permanent ecstasies. Continuous ecstatic love for Kṛṣṇa is called permanent ecstasy.”

CC Madhya 23.47

premādika sthāyi-bhāva sāmagrī-milane
kṛṣṇa-bhakti rasa-rūpe pāya pariṇāme
Word for word: 
prema-ādika — love of Godhead, beginning with śānta, dāsya and so on; sthāyi-bhāva — the permanent ecstasies; sāmagrī-milane — by mixing with other ingredients; kṛṣṇa-bhakti — devotional service to Lord Kṛṣṇa; rasa-rūpe — composed of transcendental mellows; pāya — becomes; pariṇāme — by transformation.
Translation: 
“When the permanent ecstasies [neutrality, servitorship and so on] are mixed with other ingredients, devotional service in love of Godhead is transformed and becomes composed of transcendental mellows.
Purport: 

In the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.1.4-5), the following definition is given:

athāsyāḥ keśava-raterlakṣitāyā nigadyate
sāmagrī-paripoṣeṇa
paramā rasa-rūpatā

vibhāvair anubhāvaiś casāttvikair vyabhicāribhiḥ
svādyatvaṁ hṛdi bhaktānām
ānītā śravaṇādibhiḥ
eṣā kṛṣṇa-ratiḥ sthāyī
bhāvo bhakti-raso bhavet

“Love for Kṛṣṇa, Keśava, as previously described, reaches the supreme state of being composed of mellows when its ingredients are fulfilled. By means of vibhāva, anubhāva, sāttvika and vyabhicārī, hearing and chanting are activated, and the devotee is able to taste love for Kṛṣṇa. Then attachment for Kṛṣṇa, or permanent ecstasy (sthāyi-bhāva), becomes the mellow of devotional service (bhakti-rasa).

CC Madhya 23.48

vibhāva, anubhāva, sāttvika, vyabhicārī
sthāyi-bhāva ‘rasa’ haya ei cāri mili’
Word for word: 
vibhāva — special ecstasy; anubhāva — subordinate ecstasy; sāttvika — natural ecstasy; vyabhicārī — transitory ecstasy; sthāyi-bhāva — permanent ecstasy; rasa — mellow; haya — becomes; ei cāri — these four; mili’ — meeting.
Translation: 
“Permanent ecstasy becomes a more and more relishable transcendental mellow through the mixture of special ecstasy, subordinate ecstasy, natural ecstasy and transitory ecstasy.

CC Madhya 23.49

dadhi yena khaṇḍa-marica-karpūra-milane
‘rasālākhya’ rasa haya apūrvāsvādane
Word for word: 
dadhi — yogurt; yena — as if; khaṇḍa — sugar candy; marica — black pepper; karpūra — camphor; milane — being mixed; rasāla-ākhya — known as delicious; rasa — mellow; haya — becomes; apūrva-āsvādane — by an unprecedented taste.
Translation: 
“Yogurt mixed with sugar candy, black pepper and camphor is very palatable and tasty. Similarly, when permanent ecstasy mixes with other ecstatic symptoms, it becomes unprecedentedly tasty.

CC Madhya 23.50

dvividha ‘vibhāva’, — ālambana, uddīpana
vaṁśī-svarādi — ‘uddīpana’, kṛṣṇādi — ‘ālambana’
Word for word: 
dvi-vidha — two kinds; vibhāva — particular ecstasy; ālambana — the support; uddīpana — awakening; vaṁśī-svara-ādi — such as the vibration of the flute; uddīpana — exciting; kṛṣṇa-ādi — Kṛṣṇa and others; ālambana — the support.
Translation: 
“There are two kinds of particular ecstasies [vibhāva]. One is called the support, and the other is called the awakening. The vibration of Kṛṣṇa’s flute is an example of the awakening, and Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself is an example of the support.
Purport: 

In the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.1.14), vibhāva is described as follows:

tatra jñeyā vibhāvās turaty-āsvādana-hetavaḥ
te dvidhālambanā eke
tathaivoddīpanāḥ pare

“The cause bringing about the tasting of love for Kṛṣṇa is called vibhāva. Vibhāva is divided into two categories — ālambana (support) and uddīpana (awakening).”

In the Agni Purāṇa it is stated:

vibhāvyate hi raty-ādiryatra yena vibhāvyate
vibhāvo nāma sa dvedhā-
lambanoddīpanātmakaḥ

“That which causes love for Kṛṣṇa to appear is called vibhāva. That has two divisions — ālambana (in which love appears) and uddīpana (by which love appears).”

In the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.1.16), the following is stated about ālambana:

kṛṣṇaś ca kṛṣṇa-bhaktāś cabudhair ālambanā matāḥ
raty-āder viṣayatvena
tathādhāratayāpi ca

“The object of love is Kṛṣṇa, and the container of that love is the devotee of Kṛṣṇa. Learned scholars call them ālambana — the foundations.” Similarly, uddīpana is described as follows:

uddīpanās tu te proktābhāvam uddīpayanti ye
te tu śrī-kṛṣṇa-candrasya
guṇāś ceṣṭāḥ prasādhanam

“Those things which awaken ecstatic love are called uddīpana. Mainly this awakening is made possible by the qualities and activities of Kṛṣṇa, as well as by His mode of decoration and the way His hair is arranged.” (B.r.s. 2.1.301) The Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.1.302) also gives the following further examples of uddīpana:

smitāṅga-saurabhe vaṁśa-śṛṅga-nūpura-kambavaḥ
padāṅka-kṣetra-tulasī-
bhakta-tad-vāsarādayaḥ

“Kṛṣṇa’s smile, the fragrance of His transcendental body, His flute, bugle, ankle bells and conchshell, the marks on His feet, His place of residence, His favorite plant [tulasī], His devotees, and the observance of fasts and vows connected to His devotion all awaken the symptoms of ecstatic love.”

CC Madhya 23.51

‘anubhāva’ — smita, nṛtya, gītādi udbhāsvara
stambhādi — ‘sāttvika’ anubhāvera bhitara
Word for word: 
anubhāva — subordinate ecstasy; smita — smiling; nṛtya — dancing; gīta-ādi — songs and so on; udbhāsvara — symptoms of bodily manifestation; stambha-ādi — being stunned and others; sāttvika — natural; anubhāvera bhitara — within the category of subordinate ecstasies.
Translation: 
“The subordinate ecstasies are smiling, dancing and singing, as well as different manifestations in the body. The natural ecstasies, such as being stunned, are considered among the subordinate ecstasies [anubhāva].
Purport: 

The Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.2.1) describes anubhāva as follows:

anubhāvās tu citta-stha-bhāvānām avabodhakāḥ
te bahir vikriyā prāyāḥ
proktā udbhāsvarākhyayā

“The many external ecstatic symptoms, or bodily transformations which indicate ecstatic emotions in the mind and which are also called udbhāsvara, are the anubhāvas, or subordinate ecstatic expressions of love.” Some of these symptoms are dancing, falling down and rolling on the ground, singing and crying very loudly, bodily contortions, loud vibrations, yawning, deep breathing, disregard for others, the frothing of saliva, mad laughter, spitting, hiccups and other, similar symptoms. All these symptoms are divided into two divisions — śīta and kṣepaṇa. Singing, yawning and so on are called śīta. Dancing and bodily contortions are called kṣepaṇa.

In his Anubhāṣya, Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura quotes the following verse from the Vedic literature describing udbhāsvara:

udbhāsante sva-dhāmnītiproktā udbhāsvarā budhaiḥ
nīvy-uttarīya-dhammilla-
sraṁsanaṁ gātra-moṭanam
jṛmbhā ghrāṇasya phullatvaṁ
niśvāsādyāś ca te matāḥ

“The ecstatic symptoms manifest in the external body of a person in ecstatic love are called udbhāsvara by learned scholars. Some of these are a slackening of the belt and a dropping of clothes and hair. Others are bodily contortions, yawning, a trembling of the front portion of the nostrils, heavy breathing, hiccupping and falling down and rolling on the ground. These are the external manifestations of emotional love.” Stambha and other symptoms are described in Madhya-līlā 14.167.

CC Madhya 23.52

nirveda-harṣādi — tetriśa ‘vyabhicārī’
saba mili’ ‘rasa’ haya camatkāra-kārī
Word for word: 
nirveda-harṣa-ādi — complete despondency, jubilation and so on; tetriśa — thirty-three; vyabhicārī — transitory elements; saba mili’ — all meeting together; rasa — the mellow; haya — becomes; camatkāra-kārī — a cause of wonder.
Translation: 
“There are other ingredients, beginning with complete despondency and jubilation. Altogether there are thirty-three varieties, and when these combine, the mellow becomes very wonderful.
Purport: 

Nirveda, harṣa and other symptoms are explained in Madhya-līlā 14.167. The transitory elements (vyabhicārī) are described in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.4.1—3) as follows:

athocyante trayas triṁśad-bhāvā ye vyabhicāriṇaḥ
viśeṣeṇābhimukhyena
caranti sthāyinaṁ prati
vāg-aṅga-sattva-sūcyā ye
jñeyās te vyabhicāriṇaḥ

sañcārayanti bhāvasyagatiṁ sañcāriṇo’pi te
unmajjanti nimajjanti
stāyiny amṛta-vāridhau
ūrmi-vad vardhayanty enaṁ
yānti tad-rūpatāṁ ca te

“There are thirty-three transitory elements, known as vyabhicārī ecstatic emotions. They especially wander about the permanent sentiments as assistants. They are to be known by words, by different symptoms seen in the limbs and in other parts of the body, and by the peculiar conditions of the heart. Because they set in motion the progress of the permanent sentiments, they are specifically called sañcārī, or impelling principles. These impelling principles rise up and fall back in the permanent sentiments of ecstatic love like waves in an ocean of ecstasy. Consequently they are called vyabhicārī.

CC Madhya 23.53

pañca-vidha rasa — śānta, dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya
madhura-nāma śṛṅgāra-rasa — sabāte prābalya
Word for word: 
pañca-vidha rasa — five kinds of mellows; śānta — neutrality; dāsya — servitorship; sakhya — friendship; vātsalya — parental affection; madhura — sweet; nāma — named; śṛṅgāra-rasa — the conjugal mellow; sabāte — among all of them; prābalya — predominant.
Translation: 
“There are five transcendental mellows — neutrality, servitorship, friendship, parental affection and conjugal love, which is also known as the mellow of sweetness. Conjugal love excels all the others.

CC Madhya 23.54

śānta-rase śānti-rati ‘prema’ paryanta haya
dāsya-rati ‘rāga’ paryanta krameta bāḍaya
Word for word: 
śānta-rase — in the mellow of neutrality; śānti-rati — spiritual attachment in peacefulness; prema paryanta — up to love of Godhead; haya — is; dāsya-rati — attachment in servitude; rāga — spontaneous love; paryanta — up to; krameta — gradually; bāḍaya — increases.
Translation: 
“The position of neutrality increases up to the point where one can appreciate love of Godhead. The mellow of servitorship gradually increases to the point of spontaneous love of Godhead.

CC Madhya 23.55

sakhya-vātsalya-rati pāya ‘anurāga’-sīmā
subalādyera ‘bhāva’ paryanta premera mahimā
Word for word: 
sakhya — in friendship; vātsalya — in parental affection; rati — affection; pāya — obtains; anurāga-sīmā — up to the limit of subordinate spontaneous love; subala-ādyera — of friends like Subala and others; bhāva — ecstatic love; paryanta — up to; premera mahimā — the glory of love of Godhead.
Translation: 
“After the mellow of servitorship, there are the mellows of friendship and parental love, which increase to subordinate spontaneous love. The greatness of the love found in friends like Subala extends to the standard of ecstatic love of Godhead.
Purport: 

Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura says that the mellow of neutrality increases to simple love of Godhead. In the mellow of servitorship, love of Godhead increases beyond that to affection, counterlove (anger based on love), love and attachment. Similarly, the mellow of friendship increases to affection, counterlove, love, attachment and subattachment. It is the same with the mellow of parental affection. The special feature of the mellow of friendship exhibited by personalities like Subala is that it increases from fraternal affection to counterlove, to spontaneous attachment, to subordinate attachment, and finally to the ecstasy where all the ecstatic symptoms continuously exist.

CC Madhya 23.56

śāntādi rasera ‘yoga’, ‘viyoga’ — dui bheda
sakhya-vātsalye yogādira aneka vibheda
Word for word: 
śānta-ādi rasera — of the mellows beginning from neutrality; yoga — connection; viyoga — separation; dui bheda — two divisions; sakhya — in the mellow of friendship; vātsalye — in parental affection; yoga-ādira — of connection and separation; aneka vibheda — many varieties.
Translation: 
“There are two divisions of each of the five mellows — yoga [connection] and viyoga [separation]. Among the mellows of friendship and parental affection, there are many divisions of connection and separation.
Purport: 

In the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (3.2.93), these divisions are described:

ayoga-yogāvetasyaprabhedau kathitāv ubhau

“In the mellows of bhakti-yoga, there are two stages — ayoga and yoga. Ayoga (viyoga) is described in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (3.2.94) as follows:

saṅgābhāvo harer dhīrairayoga iti kathyate
ayoge tvan-manaskatvaṁ
tad-guṇādy-anusandhayaḥ
tat-prāpty-upāya-cintādyāḥ
sarveṣāṁ kathitāḥ kriyāḥ

“Learned scholars in the science of bhakti-yoga say that when there is an absence of association with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, separation takes place. In the stage of ayoga (separation), the mind is filled with Kṛṣṇa consciousness and is fully absorbed in thoughts of Kṛṣṇa. In that stage, the devotee searches out the transcendental qualities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. It is said that in that stage of separation, all the devotees in the different mellows are always active in thinking of ways to attain Kṛṣṇa’s association.”

The word yoga (“connection”) is thus described in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (3.2.129):

kṛṣṇena saṅgamo yas tusa yoga iti kīrtyate

“When one meets Kṛṣṇa directly, that is called yoga.

In the transcendental mellows of neutrality and servitorship, there are similar divisions of yoga and viyoga, but they are not variegated. The divisions of yoga and viyoga are always existing in the five mellows. However, in the transcendental mellows of friendship and parental affection, there are many varieties of yoga and viyoga. The varieties of yoga are thus described:

yogo ’pi kathitaḥ siddhistuṣṭiḥ sthitir iti tridhā

Yoga (connection) is of three types — success, satisfaction and permanence.” (B.r.s. 3.2.129) The divisions of ayoga (separation) are described as follows:

utkaṇṭhitaṁ viyogaś cetyayogo ’pi dvidhocyate

“Thus ayoga has two divisions — longing and separation.” (B.r.s. 3.2.95)

CC Madhya 23.57

‘rūḍha’, ‘adhirūḍha’ bhāva — kevala ‘madhure’
mahiṣī-gaṇera ‘rūḍha’, ‘adhirūḍha’ gopikā-nikare
Word for word: 
rūḍha — advanced; adhirūḍha — highly advanced; bhāva — ecstasy; kevala — only; madhure — in the transcendental mellow of conjugal love; mahiṣī-gaṇera — of the queens of Dvārakā; rūḍha — advanced; adhirūḍha — highly advanced; gopikā-nikare — among the gopīs.
Translation: 
“Only in the conjugal mellow are there two ecstatic symptoms called rūḍha [advanced] and adhirūḍha [highly advanced]. The advanced ecstasies are found among the queens of Dvārakā, and the highly advanced ecstasies are found among the gopīs.
Purport: 

The adhirūḍha ecstasies are explained in the Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi (Sthāyi-bhāva-prakaraṇa 170):

rūḍhoktebhyo ’nubhāvebhyaḥkām apy āptā viśiṣṭatām
yatrānubhāvā dṛśyante
so ’dhirūḍho nigadyate

The very sweet attraction of conjugal love increases through affection, counterlove, love, attachment, subattachment, ecstasy and highly advanced ecstasy (mahābhāva). The platform of mahābhāva includes rūḍha and adhirūḍha. These platforms are possible only in conjugal love. Advanced ecstasy is found in Dvārakā, whereas highly advanced ecstasy is found among the gopīs.

CC Madhya 23.58

adhirūḍha-mahābhāva — dui ta’ prakāra
sambhoge ‘mādana’, virahe ‘mohana’ nāma tāra
Word for word: 
adhirūḍha-mahābhāva — highly advanced ecstasy; dui ta’ prakāra — two varieties; sambhoge — in actually meeting; mādana — mādana; virahe — in separation; mohana — mohana; nāma — the names; tāra — of them.
Translation: 
“Highly advanced ecstasy is divided into two categories — mādana and mohana. Meeting together is called mādana, and separation is called mohana.

CC Madhya 23.59

‘mādane’ — cumbanādi haya ananta vibheda
‘udghūrṇā’, ‘citra-jalpa’ — ‘mohane’ dui bheda
Word for word: 
mādane — in the stage of mādana; cumbana-ādi — kissing and similar activities; haya — are; ananta vibheda — unlimited divisions; udghūrṇā — unsteadiness; citra-jalpa — various mad talks; mohane — the stage of mohana; dui bheda — two divisions.
Translation: 
“On the mādana platform there are kissing and many other symptoms, which are unlimited. In the mohana stage, there are two divisions — udghūrṇā [unsteadiness] and citra-jalpa [varieties of mad emotional talks].
Purport: 

For further information, see Madhya-līlā 1.87.

CC Madhya 23.60

citra-jalpera daśa aṅga — prajalpādi-nāma
‘bhramara-gītā’ra daśa śloka tāhāte pramāṇa
Word for word: 
citra-jalpera — of the mad talks; daśa — ten; aṅga — parts; prajalpa-ādi-nāma — named prajalpa and so on; bhramara-gītāra — of Rādhārāṇī’s talks with the bumblebee (Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Canto Ten, chapter forty-seven); daśa śloka — ten verses; tāhāte — in that matter; pramāṇa — the evidence.
Translation: 
“Mad emotional talks include ten divisions, called prajalpa and other names. An example of this is the ten verses spoken by Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī called ‘The Song to the Bumblebee.’
Purport: 

Imaginative mad talks, known as citra-jalpa, can be divided into ten categories — prajalpa, parijalpa, vijalpa, ujjalpa, sañjalpa, avajalpa, abhijalpa, ājalpa, pratijalpa and sujalpa. There are no English equivalents for these different features of jalpa (imaginative talk).

CC Madhya 23.61

udghūrṇā, vivaśa-ceṣṭā — divyonmāda-nāma
virahe kṛṣṇa-sphūrti, āpanāke ‘kṛṣṇa’-jñāna
Word for word: 
udghūrṇā — unsteadiness; vivaśa-ceṣṭā — boastful activities; divya-unmāda-nāma — named transcendental madness; virahe — in separation; kṛṣṇa-sphūrti — manifestation of Kṛṣṇa; āpanāke — oneself; kṛṣṇa-jñāna — thinking as Kṛṣṇa.
Translation: 
“Udghūrṇā [unsteadiness] and vivaśa-ceṣṭā [boastful activities] are aspects of transcendental madness. In separation from Kṛṣṇa, one experiences the manifestation of Kṛṣṇa, and one thinks oneself to be Kṛṣṇa.

CC Madhya 23.62

‘sambhoga’-‘vipralambha’-bhede dvividha śṛṅgāra
sambhogera ananta aṅga, nāhi anta tāra
Word for word: 
sambhoga — of meeting (enjoyment together); vipralambha — of separation; bhede — in two divisions; dvi-vidha śṛṅgāra — two kinds of conjugal love; sambhogera — of the stage of sambhoga, or meeting; ananta aṅga — unlimited parts; nāhi — not; anta — an end; tāra — of that.
Translation: 
“In conjugal love [śṛṅgāra] there are two departments — meeting and separation. On the platform of meeting, there are unlimited varieties that are beyond description.
Purport: 

Vipralambha is described in the Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi (Vipralambha-prakaraṇa 3-4):

yūnor ayuktayor bhāvoyuktayor vātha yo mithaḥ
abhīṣṭāliṅganādīnām
anavāptau prakṛṣyate

sa vipralambho vijñeyaḥsambhogonnati-kārakaḥ
na vinā vipralambhena
sambhogaḥ puṣṭim aśnute

“When the lover and the beloved meet, they are called yukta (connected). Previous to their meeting, they are called ayukta (not connected). Whether connected or not connected, the ecstatic emotion arising due to not being able to embrace and kiss each other as desired is called vipralambha. This vipralambha helps nourish emotions at the time of meeting.” Similarly, sambhoga is described in the following verse quoted from the Vedic literature by Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura in his Anubhāṣya:

darśanāliṅganādīnāmānukūlyān niṣevayā
yūnor ullāsam ārohan
bhāvaḥ sambhoga īryate

“Meeting each other and embracing each other are aimed at bringing about the happiness of the lover and the beloved. When this stage becomes increasingly jubilant, the resultant ecstatic emotion is called sambhoga.” When awakened, sambhoga is divided into four categories:

(1) pūrva-rāga-anantara — after pūrva-rāga (attachment prior to meeting), sambhoga is called brief (saṅkṣipta);

(2) māna-anantara — after māna (anger based on love), sambhoga is called encroached (saṅkīrṇa);

(3) kiñcid-dūra-pravāsa-anantara — after being a little distance away for some time, sambhoga is called accomplished (sampanna);

(4) sudūra-pravāsa-anantara — after being far away, sambhoga is called perfection (samṛddhimān).

The meetings of the lovers that take place in dreams also have these four divisions.

CC Madhya 23.63

‘vipralambha’ catur-vidha — pūrva-rāga, māna
pravāsākhya, āra prema-vaicittya-ākhyāna
Word for word: 
vipralambha — separation; catur-vidha — four divisions; pūrva-rāga — pūrva-rāga; māna — māna; pravāsa-ākhya — known as pravāsa; āra — and; prema-vaicittya — prema-vaicittya; ākhyāna — calling.
Translation: 
“Vipralambha has four divisions — pūrva-rāga, māna, pravāsa and prema-vaicittya.
Purport: 

Pūrva-rāga is described in the Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi (Vipralambha-prakaraṇa 5):

ratir yā saṅgamāt pūrvaṁdarśana-śravaṇādi-jā
tayor unmīlati prājñaiḥ
pūrva-rāgaḥ sa ucyate

“When attachment produced in the lover and beloved before their meeting by seeing, hearing and so on becomes very palatable by the mixture of four ingredients, such as vibhāva and anubhāva, this is called pūrva-rāga.

The word māna is also described in the Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi (Vipralambha-prakaraṇa 68):

dam-patyor bhāva ekatrasator apy anuraktayoḥ
svābhīṣṭāśleṣa-vīkṣādi-
nirodhī māna ucyate

“Māna is a word used to indicate the mood of the lover and the beloved experienced whether they are in one place or in different places. This mood obstructs their looking at each other and embracing each other, despite the fact that they are attached to each other.”

Pravāsa is also explained in the Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi (Vipralambha-prakaraṇa 139), as follows:

pūrva-saṅgatayor yūnorbhaved deśāntarādibhiḥ
vyavadhānaṁ tu yat prājñaiḥ
sa pravāsa itīryate

“Pravāsa is a word used to indicate the separation of lovers who were previously intimately associated. This separation is due to their being in different places.”

Similarly, prema-vaicittya is also explained in the Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi (Vipralambha-prakaraṇa 134):

priyasya sannikarṣe ’pipremotkarṣa-svabhāvataḥ
yā viśeṣa-dhiyārtis tat
prema-vaicittyam ucyate

Prema-vaicittya is a word used to indicate an abundance of love that brings about grief from fear of separation, although the lover is present.”

CC Madhya 23.64

rādhikādye ‘pūrva-rāga’ prasiddha ‘pravāsa’, ‘māne’
‘prema-vaicittya’ śrī-daśame mahiṣī-gaṇe
Word for word: 
rādhikā-ādye — in Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and the other gopīs; pūrva-rāga — feelings before union; prasiddha — celebrated; pravāsa māne — also pravāsa and māna; prema-vaicittya — feelings of fear of separation; śrī-daśame — in the Tenth Canto; mahiṣī-gaṇe — among the queens.
Translation: 
“Of the four kinds of separation, three [pūrva-rāga, pravāsa and māna] are celebrated in Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and the gopīs. In Dvārakā, among the queens, feelings of prema-vaicittya are very prominent.

CC Madhya 23.65

kurari vilapasi tvaṁ vīta-nidrā na śeṣe
svapiti jagati rātryām īśvaro gupta-bodhaḥ
vayam iva sakhi kaccid gāḍha-nirviddha-cetā
nalina-nayana-hāsodāra-līlekṣitena
Word for word: 
kurari — O female osprey; vilapasi — are lamenting; tvam — you; vīta-nidrā — without sleep; na — not; śeṣe — rest; svapiti — sleeps; jagati — in the world; rātryām — at night; īśvaraḥ — Lord Kṛṣṇa; gupta-bodhaḥ — whose consciousness is hidden; vayam — we; iva — like; sakhi — O dear friend; kaccit — whether; gāḍha — deeply; nirviddha-cetāḥ — pierced in the heart; nalina-nayana — of the lotus-eyed Lord; hāsa — smiling; udāra — liberal; līlā-īkṣitena — by the playful glancing.
Translation: 
“ ‘My dear friend kurarī, it is now night, and Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa is sleeping. You yourself are not asleep or resting but are lamenting. Should I presume that you, like us, are affected by the smiling, liberal, playful glances of lotus-eyed Kṛṣṇa? If so, your heart is deeply pierced. Is that why you are showing these signs of sleepless lamentation?’
Purport: 

This verse from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (10.90.15) was spoken by Lord Kṛṣṇa’s queens. Although they were with Kṛṣṇa, they were still thinking of losing His company.

CC Madhya 23.66

vrajendra-nandana kṛṣṇa — nāyaka-śiromaṇi
nāyikāra śiromaṇi — rādhā-ṭhākurāṇī
Word for word: 
vrajendra-nandana kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa, the son of Mahārāja Nanda; nāyaka-śiromaṇi — best of all heroes; nāyikāra śiromaṇi — the best of all heroines; rādhā-ṭhākurāṇī — Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.
Translation: 
“Lord Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who appeared as the son of Nanda Mahārāja, is the supreme hero in all dealings. Similarly, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the topmost heroine in all dealings.

CC Madhya 23.67

nāyakānāṁ śiro-ratnaṁ
kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam
yatra nityatayā sarve
virājante mahā-guṇāḥ
Word for word: 
nāyakānām — of all heroes; śiraḥ-ratnam — the crown jewel; kṛṣṇaḥ — Lord Kṛṣṇa; tu — but; bhagavān svayam — the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself; yatra — in whom; nityatayā — with permanence; sarve — all; virājante — exist; mahā-guṇāḥ — transcendental qualities.
Translation: 
“ ‘Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself, and He is the crown jewel of all heroes. In Kṛṣṇa, all transcendental good qualities are permanently situated.’
Purport: 

This verse is also found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.1.17).

CC Madhya 23.68

devī kṛṣṇa-mayī proktā
rādhikā para-devatā
sarva-lakṣmī-mayī sarva-
kāntiḥ sammohinī parā
Word for word: 
devī — who shines brilliantly; kṛṣṇa-mayī — nondifferent from Lord Kṛṣṇa; proktā — called; rādhikā — Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; para-devatā — most worshipable; sarva-lakṣmī-mayī — presiding over all the goddesses of fortune; sarva-kāntiḥ — in whom all splendor exists; sammohinī — whose character completely bewilders Lord Kṛṣṇa; parā — the superior energy.
Translation: 
“ ‘The transcendental goddess Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī is the direct counterpart of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. She is the central figure for all the goddesses of fortune. She possesses all the attraction to attract the all-attractive Personality of Godhead. She is the primeval internal potency of the Lord.’
Purport: 

This text is found in the Bṛhad-gautamīya-tantra. For an explanation, see Ādi-līlā 4.83-95.

CC Madhya 23.69

ananta kṛṣṇera guṇa, cauṣaṭṭi — pradhāna
eka eka guṇa śuni’ juḍāya bhakta-kāṇa
Word for word: 
ananta — unlimited; kṛṣṇera — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; guṇa — qualities; cauṣaṭṭi — sixty-four; pradhāna — chief ones; eka eka — one by one; guṇa — qualities; śuni’ — hearing; juḍāya — satisfies; bhakta-kāṇa — the ears of the devotees.
Translation: 
“The transcendental qualities of Lord Kṛṣṇa are unlimited. Out of these, sixty-four are considered prominent. The ears of the devotees are satisfied simply by hearing all these qualities one after the other.

CC Madhya 23.70

ayaṁ netā su-ramyāṅgaḥ
sarva-sal-lakṣaṇānvitaḥ
ruciras tejasā yukto
balīyān vayasānvitaḥ
Word for word: 
ayam — this (Kṛṣṇa); netā — supreme hero; su-ramya-aṅgaḥ — having the most beautiful transcendental body; sarva-sat-lakṣaṇa — all auspicious bodily marks; anvitaḥ — endowed with; ruciraḥ — possessing radiance very pleasing to the eyes; tejasā — with all power; yuktaḥ — bestowed; balīyān — very strong; vayasa-anvitaḥ — having a youthful age.
Translation: 
“ ‘Kṛṣṇa, the supreme hero, has the most beautiful transcendental body. This body possesses all good features. It is radiant and very pleasing to the eyes. His body is powerful, strong and youthful.
Purport: 

This verse and the following six verses are also found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.1.23-29).

CC Madhya 23.71

vividhādbhuta-bhāṣā-vit
satya-vākyaḥ priyaṁ-vadaḥ
vāvadūkaḥ su-pāṇḍityo
buddhimān pratibhānvitaḥ
Word for word: 
vividha — various; adbhuta — wonderful; bhāṣā-vit — knower of languages; satya-vākyaḥ — whose words are truthful; priyam-vadaḥ — who speaks very pleasingly; vāvadūkaḥ — expert in speaking; supāṇḍityaḥ — very learned; buddhi-mān — very wise; pratibhāanvitaḥ — genius.
Translation: 
“ ‘Kṛṣṇa is the linguist of all wonderful languages. He is a truthful and very pleasing speaker. He is expert in speaking, and He is a very wise, learned scholar and a genius.

CC Madhya 23.72

vidagdhaś caturo dakṣaḥ
kṛta-jñaḥ su-dṛḍha-vrataḥ
deśa-kāla-supātra-jñaḥ
śāstra-cakṣuḥ śucir vaśī
Word for word: 
vidagdhaḥ — expert in artistic enjoyment; caturaḥ — cunning; dakṣaḥ — expert; kṛta-jñaḥ — grateful; su-dṛḍha-vrataḥ — firmly determined; deśa — of country; kāla — time; su-pātra — of fitness; jñaḥ — a knower; śāstra-cakṣuḥ — expert in the authoritative scriptures; śuciḥ — very clean and neat; vaśī — self-controlled.
Translation: 
“ ‘Kṛṣṇa is very expert in artistic enjoyment. He is highly cunning, expert, grateful and firmly determined in His vows. He knows how to deal according to time, person and country, and He sees through the scriptures and authoritative books. He is very clean and self-controlled.

CC Madhya 23.73

sthiro dāntaḥ kṣamā-śīlo
gambhīro dhṛtimān samaḥ
vadānyo dhārmikaḥ śūraḥ
karuṇo mānya-māna-kṛt
Word for word: 
sthiraḥ — steady; dāntaḥ — having controlled senses; kṣamā-śīlaḥ — forgiving; gambhīraḥ — grave; dhṛti-mān — calm, never bereft of intelligence; samaḥ — equal; vadānyaḥ — magnanimous; dhārmikaḥ — religious; śūraḥ — chivalrous; karuṇaḥ — kind; mānya-māna-kṛt — respectful to the respectable.
Translation: 
“ ‘Lord Kṛṣṇa is steady, His senses are controlled, and He is forgiving, grave and calm. He is also equal to all. Moreover, He is magnanimous, religious, chivalrous and kind. He is always respectful to respectable people.

CC Madhya 23.74

dakṣiṇo vinayī hrīmān
śaraṇāgata-pālakaḥ
sukhī bhakta-suhṛt prema-
vaśyaḥ sarva-śubhaṅ-karaḥ
Word for word: 
dakṣiṇaḥ — simple and liberal; vinayī — humble; hrī-mān — bashful when glorified; śaraṇa-āgata-pālakaḥ — protector of the surrendered souls; sukhī — always happy; bhakta-suhṛt — well-wisher of the devotees; prema-vaśyaḥ — submissive to love; sarva-śubham-karaḥ — all-auspicious.
Translation: 
“ ‘Kṛṣṇa is very simple and liberal, He is humble and bashful, and He is the protector of the surrendered souls. He is very happy, and He is always the well-wisher of His devotees. He is all-auspicious, and He is submissive to love.

CC Madhya 23.75

pratāpī kīrtimān rakta-
lokaḥ sādhu-samāśrayaḥ
nārī-gaṇa-manohārī
sarvārādhyaḥ samṛddhimān
Word for word: 
pratāpī — very influential; kīrti-mān — famous for good works; rakta-lokaḥ — who is the object of the attachment of all people; sādhu-samāśrayaḥ — the shelter of the good and virtuous; nārī-gaṇa — to women; manaḥ-hārī — attractive; sarva-ārādhyaḥ — worshipable by everyone; samṛddhi-mān — very rich.
Translation: 
“ ‘Kṛṣṇa is very influential and famous, and He is the object of attachment for everyone. He is the shelter of the good and the virtuous. He is attractive to the minds of women, and He is worshiped by everyone. He is very, very rich.

CC Madhya 23.76

varīyān īśvaraś ceti
guṇās tasyānukīrtitāḥ
samudrā iva pañcāśad
durvigāhā harer amī
Word for word: 
varīyān — the best; īśvaraḥ — the supreme controller; ca — and; iti — thus; guṇāḥ — the transcendental qualities; tasya — of Him; anukīrtitāḥ — described; samudrāḥ — oceans; iva — like; pañcāśat — fifty; durvigāhāḥ — difficult to penetrate fully; hareḥ — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; amī — all these.
Translation: 
“ ‘Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme, and He is always glorified as the Supreme Lord and controller. Thus all the previously mentioned transcendental qualities are in Him. The fifty qualities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead mentioned above are as deep as an ocean. In other words, they are difficult to fully comprehend.

CC Madhya 23.77

jīveṣv ete vasanto ’pi
bindu-bindutayā kvacit
paripūrṇatayā bhānti
tatraiva puruṣottame
Word for word: 
jīveṣu — in the living entities; ete — these; vasantaḥ — are residing; api — though; bindu-bindutayā — with a very minute quantity; kvacit — sometimes; paripūrṇatayā — with fullness; bhānti — are manifested; tatra — in Him; eva — certainly; puruṣa-uttame — in the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Translation: 
“ ‘These qualities are sometimes very minutely exhibited in living beings, but they are fully manifested in the Supreme Personality of Godhead.’
Purport: 

This verse is found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.1.30). Living entities are parts and parcels of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. As Lord Kṛṣṇa states in the Bhagavad-gītā (15.7):

mamaivāṁśo jīva-lokejīva-bhūtaḥ sanātanaḥ
manaḥ-ṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi
prakṛti-sthāni karṣati

“The living entities in this conditioned world are My eternal, fragmental parts. Due to conditioned life, they are struggling very hard with the six senses, which include the mind.”

The qualities of Kṛṣṇa are present in the living entity in minute, atomic quantities. A small portion of gold is certainly gold, but it cannot be equal to a gold mine. Similarly, the living entities have all the characteristics of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in minute quantity, but the living entity is never equal to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. God is therefore described as the Supreme Being, and the living entity is described as a jīva. God is described as the Supreme Being, the chief of all living beings, because He is supplying the necessities of all others — eko bahūnāṁ yo vidadhāti kāmān. The Māyāvādīs maintain that everyone is God, but even if this philosophy is accepted, no one can maintain that everyone is equal to the Supreme Godhead in every respect. Only unintelligent men maintain that everyone is equal to God or that everyone is God.

CC Madhya 23.78

atha pañca-guṇā ye syur
aṁśena giriśādiṣu
Word for word: 
atha — now (over and above these); pañca-guṇāḥ — five qualities; ye — which; syuḥ — may exist; aṁśena — by part; giriśa-ādiṣu — in demigods like Lord Śiva.
Translation: 
“ ‘Apart from these fifty qualities, there are five other qualities found in the Supreme Personality of Godhead that are partially present in demigods like Śiva.
Purport: 

This verse and the following seven verses are also found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.1.37-44).

CC Madhya 23.79-81

sadā svarūpa-samprāptaḥ
sarva-jño nitya-nūtanaḥ
sac-cid-ānanda-sāndrāṅgaḥ
sarva-siddhi-niṣevitaḥ
athocyante guṇāḥ pañca
ye lakṣmīśādi-vartinaḥ
avicintya-mahā-śaktiḥ
koṭi-brahmāṇḍa-vigrahaḥ
avatārāvalī-bījaṁ
hatāri-gati-dāyakaḥ
ātmārāma-gaṇākarṣīty
amī kṛṣṇe kilādbhutāḥ
Word for word: 
sadā — always; svarūpa-samprāptaḥ — situated in one’s eternal nature; sarva-jñaḥ — omniscient; nitya-nūtanaḥ — ever fresh; sat-cit-ānanda-sāndra-aṅgaḥ — the concentrated form of eternity, knowledge and bliss; sarva-siddhi-niṣevitaḥ — attended by all mystic perfections; atha — now; ucyante — are said; guṇāḥ — qualities; pañca — five; ye — which; lakṣmī-īśa — in the proprietor of the goddess of fortune; ādi — etc; vartinaḥ — represented; avicintya — inconceivable; mahā-śaktiḥ — possessing supreme energy; koṭi-brahmāṇḍa — consisting of innumerable universes; vigrahaḥ — having a body; avatāra — of incarnations; āvalī — of groups; bījam — the source; hata-ari — to enemies killed by Him; gati-dāyakaḥ — giving liberation; ātmārāma-gaṇa — of those fully satisfied in themselves; ākarṣī — attracting; iti — thus; amī — these; kṛṣṇe — in Kṛṣṇa; kila — certainly; adbhutāḥ — very wonderful.
Translation: 
“ ‘These qualities are (1) the Lord is always situated in His original position, (2) He is omniscient, (3) He is always fresh and youthful, (4) He is the concentrated form of eternity, knowledge and bliss, and (5) He is the possessor of all mystic perfection. There are another five qualities, which exist in the Vaikuṇṭha planets in Nārāyaṇa, the Lord of Lakṣmī. These qualities are also present in Kṛṣṇa, but they are not present in demigods like Lord Śiva or in other living entities. These are (1) the Lord possesses inconceivable supreme power, (2) He generates innumerable universes from His body, (3) He is the original source of all incarnations, (4) He bestows salvation upon enemies He kills, and (5) He has the ability to attract exalted persons who are satisfied in themselves. Although these qualities are present in Nārāyaṇa, the dominating Deity of the Vaikuṇṭha planets, they are even more wonderfully present in Kṛṣṇa.

CC Madhya 23.82-83

sarvādbhuta-camatkāra-
līlā-kallola-vāridhiḥ
atulya-madhura-prema-
maṇḍita-priya-maṇḍalaḥ
tri-jagan-mānasākarṣi-
muralī-kala-kūjitaḥ
asamānordhva-rūpa-śrī-
vismāpita-carācaraḥ
Word for word: 
sarva-adbhuta-camatkāra — bringing wonder to all; līlā — of pastimes; kallola — full of waves; vāridhiḥ — an ocean; atulya-madhura-prema — with incomparable conjugal love; maṇḍita — decorated; priya-maṇḍalaḥ — with a circle of favorite personalities; tri-jagat — of the three worlds; mānasa-ākarṣi — attracting the minds; muralī — of the flute; kala-kūjitaḥ — the melodious vibration; asamāna-ūrdhva — unequaled and unsurpassed; rūpa — by beauty; śrī — and opulence; vismāpita-cara-acaraḥ — astonishing the moving and nonmoving living entities.
Translation: 
“ ‘Apart from these sixty transcendental qualities, Kṛṣṇa has an additional four transcendental qualities, which are not manifested even in the personality of Nārāyaṇa. These are: (1) Kṛṣṇa is like an ocean filled with waves of pastimes that evoke wonder within everyone in the three worlds. (2) In His activities of conjugal love, He is always surrounded by His dear devotees who possess unequaled love for Him. (3) He attracts the minds of all three worlds with the melodious vibration of His flute. (4) His personal beauty and opulence are beyond compare. No one is equal to Him, and no one is greater than Him. Thus the Personality of Godhead astonishes all living entities, both moving and nonmoving, within the three worlds. He is so beautiful that He is called Kṛṣṇa.
Purport: 

Māyāvādī philosophers, who have a poor fund of knowledge, simply dismiss the subject by explaining that kṛṣṇa means “black.” Not understanding the qualities of Kṛṣṇa, these atheistic rascals do not accept Him as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Although the Lord is described and accepted by great personalities, ācāryas and sages, the Māyāvādīs still do not appreciate Him. Unfortunately, at the present moment human society is so degraded that people cannot even provide themselves with life’s daily necessities, yet they are captivated by Māyāvādī philosophers and are being misled. According to the Bhagavad-gītā, simply by understanding Kṛṣṇa one can get free from the cycle of birth and death. Tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti mām eti so ’rjuna. Unfortunately this great science of Kṛṣṇa consciousness has been impeded by Māyāvādī philosophers, who are opposed to the personality of Kṛṣṇa. Those who are preaching this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement must try to understand Kṛṣṇa from the statements given in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (The Nectar of Devotion).

CC Madhya 23.84-85

līlā premṇā priyādhikyaṁ
mādhuryaṁ veṇu-rūpayoḥ
ity asādhāraṇaṁ proktaṁ
govindasya catuṣṭayam
evaṁ guṇāś catur-bhedāś
catuḥ-ṣaṣṭir udāhṛtāḥ
Word for word: 
līlā — pastimes; premṇā — with transcendental love; priya-ādhikyam — an abundance of highly elevated devotees; mādhuryam — sweetness; veṇu-rūpayoḥ — of the flute and the beauty of Kṛṣṇa; iti — thus; asādhāraṇam — uncommon; proktam — said; govindasya — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; catuṣṭayam — four special features; evam — thus; guṇāḥ — transcendental qualities; catuḥ-bhedāḥ — having four divisions; catuḥ-ṣaṣṭiḥ — sixty-four; udāhṛtāḥ — declared.
Translation: 
“ ‘Above Nārāyaṇa, Kṛṣṇa has four specific transcendental qualities — His wonderful pastimes, an abundance of wonderful associates who are very dear to Him [like the gopīs], His wonderful beauty and the wonderful vibration of His flute. Lord Kṛṣṇa is more exalted than ordinary living beings and demigods like Lord Śiva. He is even more exalted than His personal expansion Nārāyaṇa. In all, the Supreme Personality of Godhead has sixty-four transcendental qualities in full.’

CC Madhya 23.86

ananta guṇa śrī-rādhikāra, paṅciśa — pradhāna
yei guṇera ‘vaśa’ haya kṛṣṇa bhagavān
Word for word: 
ananta guṇa — unlimited qualities; śrī-rādhikāra — of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; paṅciśa — twenty-five; pradhāna — chief; yei guṇera — by those qualities; vaśa — under the control; haya — is; kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Translation: 
“Similarly, Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī has unlimited transcendental qualities, of which twenty-five are principal. Śrī Kṛṣṇa is controlled by these transcendental qualities of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī.

CC Madhya 23.87-91

atha vṛndāvaneśvaryāḥ
kīrtyante pravarā guṇāḥ
madhureyaṁ nava-vayāś
calāpāṅgojjvala-smitā
cāru-saubhāgya-rekhāḍhyā
gandhonmādita-mādhavā
saṅgīta-prasarābhijñā
ramya-vāṅ narma-paṇḍitā
vinītā karuṇā-pūrṇā
vidagdhā pāṭavānvitā
lajjā-śīlā su-maryādā
dhairya-gāmbhīrya-śālinī
su-vilāsā mahābhāva-
paramotkarṣa-tarṣiṇī
gokula-prema-vasatir
jagac-chreṇī-lasad-yaśāḥ
gurv-arpita-guru-snehā
sakhī-praṇayitā-vaśā
kṛṣṇa-priyāvalī-mukhyā
santatāśrava-keśavā
bahunā kiṁ guṇās tasyāḥ
saṅkhyātītā harer iva
Word for word: 
atha — now; vṛndāvana-īśvaryāḥ — of the Queen of Vṛndāvana (Śrī Rādhikā); kīrtyante — are glorified; pravarāḥ — chief; guṇāḥ — qualities; madhurā — sweet; iyam — this one (Rādhikā); nava-vayāḥ — youthful; cala-apāṅgā — having restless eyes; ujjvala-smitā — having a bright smile; cāru-saubhāgya-rekha-āḍhyā — possessing beautiful, auspicious lines on the body; gandha — by the wonderful fragrance of Her body; unmādita-mādhavā — exciting Kṛṣṇa; saṅgīta — of songs; prasara-abhijñā — knowledgeable in the expansion; ramya-vāk — having charming speech; narma-paṇḍitā — learned in joking; vinītā — humble; karuṇā-pūrṇā — full of mercy; vidagdhā — cunning; pāṭava-anvitā — expert in performing Her duties; lajjā-śīlā — shy; su-maryādā — respectful; dhairya — calm; gāmbhīrya-śālinī — and grave; su-vilāsā — playful; mahā-bhāva — of advanced ecstasy; parama-utkarṣa — in the highest excellence; tarṣiṇī — desirous; gokula-prema — the love of the residents of Gokula; vasatiḥ — the abode; jagat-śreṇī — among the surrendered devotees who are the abodes (āśraya) of love for Kṛṣṇa; lasat — shining; yaśāḥ — whose fame; guru — to the elders; arpita — offered; guru-snehā — whose great affection; sakhī-praṇayitā-vaśā — controlled by the love of Her gopī friends; kṛṣṇa-priya-āvalī — among those who are dear to Kṛṣṇa; mukhyā — the chief; santata — always; āśrava-keśavāḥ — to whom Lord Keśava is submissive; bahunā kim — in short; guṇāḥ — the qualities; tasyāḥ — of Her; saṅkhyātītāḥ — beyond count; hareḥ — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; iva — like.
Translation: 
“ ‘Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī’s twenty-five chief transcendental qualities are: (1) She is very sweet. (2) She is always freshly youthful. (3) Her eyes are restless. (4) She smiles brightly. (5) She has beautiful, auspicious lines. (6) She makes Kṛṣṇa happy with Her bodily aroma. (7) She is very expert in singing. (8) Her speech is charming. (9) She is very expert in joking and speaking pleasantly. (10) She is very humble and meek. (11) She is always full of mercy. (12) She is cunning. (13) She is expert in executing Her duties. (14) She is shy. (15) She is always respectful. (16) She is always calm. (17) She is always grave. (18) She is expert in enjoying life. (19) She is situated at the topmost level of ecstatic love. (20) She is the reservoir of loving affairs in Gokula. (21) She is the most famous of submissive devotees. (22) She is very affectionate to elderly people. (23) She is very submissive to the love of Her friends. (24) She is the chief gopī. (25) She always keeps Kṛṣṇa under Her control. In short, She possesses unlimited transcendental qualities, just as Lord Kṛṣṇa does.’
Purport: 

These verses are found in the Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi (Śrī-rādhā-prakaraṇa 11-15).

CC Madhya 23.92

nāyaka, nāyikā, — dui rasera ‘ālambana’
sei dui śreṣṭha, — rādhā, vrajendra-nandana
Word for word: 
nāyaka — hero; nāyikā — heroine; dui — two; rasera — of mellows; ālambana — the basis; sei — those; dui — two; śreṣṭha — chief; rādhā — Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī; vrajendra-nandana — and Kṛṣṇa, the son of Mahārāja Nanda.
Translation: 
“The basis of all transcendental mellows is the hero and the heroine, and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and Lord Kṛṣṇa, the son of Mahārāja Nanda, are the best.

CC Madhya 23.93

ei-mata dāsye dāsa, sakhye sakhā-gaṇa
vātsalye mātā pitā āśrayālambana
Word for word: 
ei-mata — in this way; dāsye — in the transcendental mellow of servitude; dāsa — servants; sakhye — in the transcendental mellow of friendship; sakhā-gaṇa — the friends; vātsalye — in the transcendental mellow of parental affection; mātā pitā — mother and father; āśraya-ālambana — the support or shelter of love as the abode or dwelling place of love.
Translation: 
“Just as Lord Kṛṣṇa and Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī are the object and shelter of the mellow of conjugal love, respectively, so in the mellow of servitorship, Kṛṣṇa, the son of Mahārāja Nanda, is the object, and servants like Citraka, Raktaka and Patraka are the shelter. Similarly, in the transcendental mellow of friendship, Lord Kṛṣṇa is the object, and friends like Śrīdāmā, Sudāmā and Subala are the shelter. In the transcendental mellow of parental affection, Kṛṣṇa is the object, and mother Yaśodā and Mahārāja Nanda are the shelter.

CC Madhya 23.94

ei rasa anubhave yaiche bhakta-gaṇa
yaiche rasa haya, śuna tāhāra lakṣaṇa
Word for word: 
ei — this; rasa — mellow; anubhave — realize; yaiche — how; bhakta-gaṇa — the devotees; yaiche — how; rasa — the mellow; haya — appears; śuna — hear; tāhāra — of them; lakṣaṇa — the symptoms.
Translation: 
“Now hear how the mellows appear and how they are realized by the devotees on different transcendental platforms.

CC Madhya 23.95-98

bhakti-nirdhūta-doṣāṇāṁ
prasannojjvala-cetasām
śrī-bhāgavata-raktānāṁ
rasikāsaṅga-raṅgiṇām
jīvanī-bhūta-govinda-
pāda-bhakti-sukha-śriyām
premāntaraṅga-bhūtāni
kṛtyāny evānutiṣṭhatām
bhaktānāṁ hṛdi rājantī
saṁskāra-yugalojjvalā
ratir ānanda-rūpaiva
nīyamānā tu rasyatām
kṛṣṇādibhir vibhāvādyair
gatair anubhavādhvani
prauḍhānandaś camatkāra-
kāṣṭhām āpadyate parām
Word for word: 
bhakti — by devotional service; nirdhūta-doṣāṇām — whose material contaminations are washed off; prasanna-ujjvala-cetasām — whose hearts are satisfied and clean; śrī-bhāgavata-raktānām — who are interested in understanding the transcendental meaning of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam; rasika-āsaṅga-raṅgiṇām — who live with the devotees and enjoy their transcendental company; jīvanī-bhūta — has become the life; govinda-pāda — to the lotus feet of Govinda; bhakti-sukha-śriyām — those for whom the only opulence is the happiness of devotional service; prema-antaraṅga-bhūtāni — which are of a confidential nature in the loving affairs of the devotees and Kṛṣṇa; kṛtyāni — activities; eva — certainly; anutiṣṭhatām — of those performing; bhaktānām — of the devotees; hṛdi — in the hearts; rājantī — existing; saṁskāra-yugala — by both previous and current purificatory methods; ujjvalā — expanded; ratiḥ — love; ānanda-rūpā — whose form is transcendental bliss; eva — certainly; nīyamānā — being brought; tu — but; rasyatām — to tastefulness; kṛṣṇa-ādibhiḥ — by Kṛṣṇa and others; vibhāva-ādyaiḥ — by ingredients such as vibhāva; gataiḥ — gone; anubhava-adhvani — to the path of perception; prauḍha-ānandaḥ — mature bliss; camatkāra-kāṣṭhām — the platform of wonder; āpadyate — arrives at; parām — the supreme.
Translation: 
“ ‘For those who are completely washed of all material contamination by pure devotional service, who are always satisfied and brightly enlightened in the heart, who are always attached to understanding the transcendental meaning of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, who are always eager to associate with advanced devotees, whose happiness in the service of the lotus feet of Govinda is their very life, who always discharge the confidential activities of love — for such advanced devotees, who are by nature situated in bliss, the seed of love [rati] is expanded in the heart by previous and current reformatory processes. Thus the mixture of ecstatic ingredients becomes tasty and, being within the perception of the devotee, reaches the highest platform of wonder and deep bliss.’
Purport: 

These verses are found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.1.7-10).

CC Madhya 23.99

ei rasa-āsvāda nāhi abhaktera gaṇe
kṛṣṇa-bhakta-gaṇa kare rasa āsvādane
Word for word: 
ei — this; rasa-āsvāda — tasting of transcendental mellows; nāhi — not; abhaktera gaṇe — among nondevotees; kṛṣṇa-bhakta-gaṇe — the pure devotees of Lord Kṛṣṇa; kare — do; rasa — these transcendental mellows; āsvādane — tasting.
Translation: 
“The exchange between Kṛṣṇa and different devotees situated in different transcendental mellows is not to be experienced by nondevotees. Advanced devotees can understand and appreciate the different varieties of devotional service reciprocated with the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

CC Madhya 23.100

sarvathaiva durūho ’yam
abhaktair bhagavad-rasaḥ
tat pādāmbuja-sarvasvair
bhaktair evānurasyate
Word for word: 
sarvathā — in all respects; eva — certainly; durūhaḥ — difficult to be understood; ayam — this; abhaktaiḥ — by nondevotees; bhagavat-rasaḥ — the exchange of transcendental mellows with the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tat — that; pāda-ambuja-sarva-svaiḥ — whose all in all is the lotus feet; bhaktaiḥ — by devotees; eva — certainly; anurasyate — is relished.
Translation: 
“ ‘Nondevotees cannot understand the exchange of transcendental mellows between the devotees and the Lord. In all respects, this is very difficult to understand, but one who has dedicated everything to the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa can taste the transcendental mellows.’
Purport: 

This verse is also found in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (2.5.131).

CC Madhya 23.101

saṅkṣepe kahiluṅ ei ‘prayojana’-vivaraṇa
pañcama-puruṣārtha — ei ‘kṛṣṇa-prema’-dhana
Word for word: 
saṅkṣepe kahiluṅ — briefly I have spoken; ei — this; prayojana-vivaraṇa — description of the ultimate achievement; pañcama-puruṣa-artha — the fifth and ultimate goal of life; ei — this; kṛṣṇa-prema-dhana — the treasure of love of Kṛṣṇa.
Translation: 
“This brief description is an elaboration of the ultimate goal of life. Indeed, this is the fifth and ultimate goal, which is beyond the platform of liberation. It is called kṛṣṇa-prema-dhana, the treasure of love for Kṛṣṇa.

CC Madhya 23.102

pūrve prayāge āmi rasera vicāre
tomāra bhāi rūpe kailuṅ śakti-sañcāre
Word for word: 
pūrve — previously; prayāge — in Prayāga; āmi — I; rasera vicāre — in consideration of different mellows; tomāra bhāi — your brother; rūpe — unto Rūpa Gosvāmī; kailuṅ — I have done; śakti-sañcāre — endowment of all power.
Translation: 
“Previously I empowered your brother Rūpa Gosvāmī to understand these mellows. I did this while instructing him at the Daśāśvamedha-ghāṭa in Prayāga.

CC Madhya 23.103

tumiha kariha bhakti-śāstrera pracāra
mathurāya lupta-tīrthera kariha uddhāra
Word for word: 
tumiha — you also; kariha — should perform; bhakti-śāstrera pracāra — propagation of the revealed scriptures of devotional service; mathurāya — in Mathurā; lupta-tīrthera — of lost places of pilgrimage; kariha — should make; uddhāra — recovery.
Translation: 
“O Sanātana, you should broadcast the revealed scriptures on devotional service and excavate the lost places of pilgrimage in the district of Mathurā.

CC Madhya 23.104

vṛndāvane kṛṣṇa-sevā, vaiṣṇava-ācāra
bhakti-smṛti-śāstra kari’ kariha pracāra
Word for word: 
vṛndāvane — in Vṛndāvana; kṛṣṇa-sevā — the service of Lord Kṛṣṇa; vaiṣṇava-ācāra — behavior of Vaiṣṇavas; bhakti-smṛti-śāstra — the reference books of devotional service; kari’ — compiling; kariha — do; pracāra — preaching.
Translation: 
“Establish devotional service to Lord Kṛṣṇa and Rādhārāṇī in Vṛndāvana. You should also compile bhakti scriptures and preach the bhakti cult from Vṛndāvana.”
Purport: 

Sanātana Gosvāmī was enjoined (1) to broadcast the revealed scriptures on devotional service and establish the conclusions of devotional service, (2) to reestablish lost places of pilgrimage like Vṛndāvana and Rādhā-kuṇḍa, (3) to establish the Vṛndāvana method of temple worship and install Deities in temples (Śrī Sanātana Gosvāmī established the Madana-mohana temple, and Rūpa Gosvāmī established the Govindajī temple), and (4) to enunciate the behavior of a Vaiṣṇava (as Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī did in the Hari-bhakti-vilāsa). In this way Sanātana Gosvāmī was empowered to establish the cult of Vaiṣṇavism. As stated by Śrīnivāsa Ācārya in his Ṣaḍ-gosvāmy-aṣṭaka (2):

nānā-śāstra-vicāraṇaika-nipuṇau sad-dharma-saṁsthāpakau
lokānāṁ hita-kāriṇau tri-bhuvane mānyau śaraṇyākarau
rādhā-kṛṣṇa-padāravinda-bhajanānandena mattālikau
vande rūpa-sanātanau raghu-yugau śrī-jīva-gopālakau

“I offer my respectful obeisances unto the six Gosvāmīs, namely Śrī Sanātana Gosvāmī, Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī, Śrī Raghunātha Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī, Śrī Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī, Śrī Jīva Gosvāmī and Śrī Gopāla Bhaṭṭa Gosvāmī, who are very expert in scrutinizingly studying all the revealed scriptures with the aim of establishing eternal religious principles for the benefit of all human beings. Thus they are honored all over the three worlds, and they are worth taking shelter of because they are absorbed in the mood of the gopīs and are engaged in the transcendental loving service of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa.”

This Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement continues the tradition of the six Gosvāmīs, especially Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī and Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī. Serious students of this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement must understand their great responsibility to preach the cult of Vṛndāvana (devotional service to the Lord) all over the world. We now have a nice temple in Vṛndāvana, and serious students should take advantage of it. I am very hopeful that some of our students can take up this responsibility and render the best service to humanity by educating people in Kṛṣṇa consciousness.

CC Madhya 23.105

yukta-vairāgya-sthiti saba śikhāila
śuṣka-vairāgya-jñāna saba niṣedhila
Word for word: 
yukta-vairāgya — of proper renunciation; sthiti — the situation; saba — all; śikhāila — instructed; śuṣka-vairāgya — dry renunciation; jñāna — speculative knowledge; saba — all; niṣedhila — forbade.
Translation: 
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then told Sanātana Gosvāmī about proper renunciation according to a particular situation, and the Lord forbade dry renunciation and speculative knowledge in all respects.
Purport: 

This is the technique for understanding śuṣka-vairāgya and yukta-vairāgya. In the Bhagavad-gītā (6.17) it is said:

yuktāhāra-vihārasyayukta-ceṣṭasya karmasu
yukta-svapnāvabodhasya
yogo bhavati duḥkha-hā

“He who is temperate in his habits of eating, sleeping, recreation and work can mitigate all material pains by practicing the yoga system.” To broadcast the cult of Kṛṣṇa consciousness, one has to learn the possibility of renunciation in terms of country, time and candidate. A candidate for Kṛṣṇa consciousness in the Western countries should be taught about the renunciation of material existence, but one would teach candidates from a country like India in a different way. The teacher (ācārya) has to consider time, candidate and country. He must avoid the principle of niyamāgraha — that is, he should not try to perform the impossible. What is possible in one country may not be possible in another. The ācārya’s duty is to accept the essence of devotional service. There may be a little change here and there as far as yukta-vairāgya (proper renunciation) is concerned. Dry renunciation is forbidden by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, and we have also learned this from our spiritual master, His Divine Grace Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura Gosvāmī Mahārāja. The essence of devotional service must be taken into consideration, and not the outward paraphernalia.

Sanātana Gosvāmī wrote his Vaiṣṇava smṛti, Hari-bhakti-vilāsa, which was specifically meant for India. In those days, India was more or less following the principle of smārta-vidhi. Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī had to keep pace with this, and his Hari-bhakti-vilāsa was compiled with this in mind. According to smārta-brāhmaṇas, a person not born in a brāhmaṇa family could not be elevated to the position of a brāhmaṇa. Sanātana Gosvāmī, however, says in the Hari-bhakti-vilāsa (2.12) that anyone can be elevated to the position of a brāhmaṇa by the process of initiation.

yathā kāñcanatāṁ yātikāṁsyaṁ rasa-vidhānataḥ
tathā dīkṣā-vidhānena
dvijatvaṁ jāyate nṛṇām

“As bell metal is turned to gold when mixed with mercury in an alchemical process, so one who is properly trained and initiated by a bona fide spiritual master immediately becomes a brāhmaṇa.”

There is a difference between the smārta process and the gosvāmī process. According to the smārta process, one cannot be accepted as a brāhmaṇa unless he is born in a brāhmaṇa family. According to the gosvāmī process, the Hari-bhakti-vilāsa and the Nārada-pañcarātra, anyone can be a brāhmaṇa if he is properly initiated by a bona fide spiritual master. This is also the verdict of Śukadeva Gosvāmī in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (2.4.18):

kirāta-hūṇāndhra-pulinda-pulkaśā
ābhīra-śumbhā yavanāḥ khasādayaḥ
ye ’nye ca pāpā yad-apāśrayāśrayāḥ
śudhyanti tasmai prabhaviṣṇave namaḥ

“Kirātas, Hūṇas, Āndhras, Pulindas, Pulkaśas, Ābhīras, Śumbhas, Yavanas and members of the Khasa races, and even others who are addicted to sinful acts, can be purified by taking shelter of the devotees of the Lord, due to His being the supreme power. I beg to offer my respectful obeisances unto Him.”

A Vaiṣṇava is immediately purified, provided he follows the rules and regulations of his bona fide spiritual master. It is not necessary that the rules and regulations followed in India be exactly the same as those in Europe, America and other Western countries. Simply imitating without effect is called niyamāgraha. Not following the regulative principles but instead living extravagantly is also called niyamāgraha. The word niyama means “regulative principles,” and āgraha means “eagerness.” The word agraha means “not to accept.” We should not follow regulative principles without an effect, nor should we fail to accept the regulative principles. What is required is a special technique according to country, time and candidate. Without the sanction of the spiritual master, we should not try to imitate. This principle is recommended here: śuṣka-vairāgya-jñāna saba niṣedhila. This is Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu’s liberal demonstration of the bhakti cult. We should not introduce anything whimsically, without the sanction of the bona fide spiritual master. In this connection, Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura comments on these points by quoting two verses by Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī (Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu 1.2.255-256).

anāsaktasya viṣayānyathārham upayuñjataḥ
nirbandhaḥ kṛṣṇa-sambandhe
yuktaṁ vairāgyam ucyate

prāpañcikatayā buddhyāhari-sambandhi-vastunaḥ
mumukṣubhiḥ parityāgo
vairāgyaṁ phalgu kathyate

“When one is not attached to anything but at the same time accepts everything in relation to Kṛṣṇa, one is rightly situated above possessiveness. On the other hand, one who rejects everything without knowledge of its relationship to Kṛṣṇa is not as complete in his renunciation.” To preach the bhakti cult, one should seriously consider these verses.

CC Madhya 23.106-107

adveṣṭā sarva-bhūtānāṁ
maitraḥ karuṇa eva ca
nirmamo nirahaṅkāraḥ
sama-duḥkha-sukhaḥ kṣamī
santuṣṭaḥ satataṁ yogī
yatātmā dṛḍha-niścayaḥ
mayy arpita-mano-buddhir
yo mad-bhaktaḥ sa me priyaḥ
Word for word: 
adveṣṭā — not envious or jealous; sarva-bhūtānām — to all living entities in all parts of the world; maitraḥ — friendly; karuṇaḥ — compassionate; eva — certainly; ca — and; nirmamaḥ — with no sense of proprietorship; nirahaṅkāraḥ — without pride (without considering oneself a great preacher); sama-duḥkha-sukhaḥ — equal in distress and happiness (peaceful); kṣamī — tolerant of offenses created by others; santuṣṭaḥ — satisfied; satatam — continuously; yogī — engaged in bhakti-yoga; yata-ātmā — having controlled the senses and mind; dṛḍha-niścayaḥ — having firm confidence and determination; mayi — unto Me; arpita — dedicated; manaḥ-buddhiḥ — mind and intelligence; yaḥ — who; mat-bhaktaḥ — My devotee; saḥ — that person; me — to Me; priyaḥ — dear.
Translation: 
“ ‘One who is not envious but is a kind friend to all living entities, who does not think himself a proprietor and is free from false ego, who is equal in both happiness and distress, who is always satisfied, forgiving and self-controlled, and who is engaged in devotional service with determination, his mind and intelligence dedicated to Me — such a devotee of Mine is very dear to Me.
Purport: 

One should not be jealous of members of other castes or nations. It is not that only Indians or brāhmaṇas can become Vaiṣṇavas. Anyone can become a Vaiṣṇava. Therefore one should recognize that the bhakti cult must be spread all over the world. That is real adveṣṭā. Moreover, the word maitra, “friendly,” indicates that one who is able to preach the bhakti cult all over the world should be equally friendly to everyone. These two and the following six verses were spoken by Śrī Kṛṣṇa in the Bhagavad-gītā (12.13-20).

CC Madhya 23.108

yasmān nodvijate loko
lokān nodvijate tu yaḥ
harṣāmarṣa-bhayodvegair
mukto yaḥ sa ca me priyaḥ
Word for word: 
yasmāt — from whom; na — not; udvijate — is agitated by fear or lamentation; lokaḥ — the people in general; lokāt — from the people; na — not; udvijate — is agitated; tu — but; yaḥ — who; harṣa — jubilation; amarṣa — anger; bhaya — fear; udvegaiḥ — and from anxiety; muktaḥ — liberated; yaḥ — anyone who; saḥ — he; ca — also; me priyaḥ — My very dear devotee.
Translation: 
“ ‘He by whom no one is put into difficulty or anxiety and who is not disturbed by anyone, who is liberated from jubilation, anger, fear and anxiety, is very dear to Me.

CC Madhya 23.109

anapekṣaḥ śucir dakṣa
udāsīno gata-vyathaḥ
sarvārambha-parityāgī
yo me bhaktaḥ sa me priyaḥ
Word for word: 
anapekṣaḥ — indifferent; śuciḥ — clean; dakṣaḥ — expert in executing devotional service; udāsīnaḥ — without affection for anything material; gata-vyathaḥ — liberated from all material distress; sarva-ārambha — all kinds of endeavor; parityāgī — completely rejecting; yaḥ — anyone who; me — My; bhaktaḥ — devotee; saḥ — he; me priyaḥ — very dear to Me.
Translation: 
“ ‘A devotee who is not dependent on others but is dependent solely on Me, who is clean inwardly and outwardly, who is expert, indifferent to material things, without cares and free from all pains, and who rejects all pious and impious activities is very dear to Me.
Purport: 

The word anapekṣa means that one should not be concerned with mundane people and should not depend upon them. One should depend solely on the Supreme Personality of Godhead and be free from material desires. One should also be clean, within and without. To be outwardly clean, one should regularly bathe with soap and oil, and to be inwardly clean one should always be absorbed in thoughts of Kṛṣṇa. The words sarvārambha-parityāgī indicate that one should not be interested in the so-called smārta-vidhi of pious and impious activities.

CC Madhya 23.110

yo na hṛṣyati na dveṣṭi
na śocati na kāṅkṣati
śubhāśubha-parityāgī
bhaktimān yaḥ sa me priyaḥ
Word for word: 
yaḥ — he who; na hṛṣyati — is not jubilant (upon getting something favorable); na dveṣṭi — does not hate (being artificially influenced by something unfavorable); na — not; śocati — laments; na — not; kāṅkṣati — desires; śubha-aśubha — the materially auspicious and inauspicious; parityāgī — completely rejecting; bhakti-mān — possessing devotion; yaḥ — anyone who; saḥ — that person; me priyaḥ — very dear to Me.
Translation: 
“One who is free of all material jubilation, hatred, lamentation and desire, who renounces both materially auspicious and materially inauspicious things, and who is devoted to Me is very dear to Me.

CC Madhya 23.111-112

samaḥ śatrau ca mitre ca
tathā mānāpamānayoḥ
śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkheṣu
samaḥ saṅga-vivarjitaḥ
tulya-nindā-stutir maunī
santuṣṭo yena kenacit
aniketaḥ sthira-matir
bhaktimān me priyo naraḥ
Word for word: 
samaḥ — equal; śatrau — to the enemy; ca — also; mitre — to the friend; ca — and; tathā — similarly; māna-apamānayoḥ — in honor and dishonor; śīta — in winter; uṣṇa — and in scorching heat; sukha — in happiness; duḥkheṣu — and in distress; samaḥ — equipoised; saṅga-vivarjitaḥ — without affection; tulya — equal; nindā — blasphemy; stutiḥ — and praise; maunī — grave; santuṣṭaḥ — always satisfied; yena kenacit — by whatever comes; aniketaḥ — without attachment for a residence; sthira — steady; matiḥ — minded; bhakti-mān — fixed in devotional service; me — to Me; priyaḥ — dear; naraḥ — a person.
Translation: 
“ ‘One who is equal to friends and enemies, who is equipoised in honor and dishonor, heat and cold, happiness and distress, fame and infamy, who is always free from attachment to material things and always grave and satisfied in all circumstances, who doesn’t care for any residence, and who is always fixed in devotional service — such a person is very dear to Me.

CC Madhya 23.113

ye tu dharmāmṛtam idaṁ
yathoktaṁ paryupāsate
śraddadhānā mat-paramā
bhaktās te ’tīva me priyāḥ
Word for word: 
ye — the devotees who; tu — but; dharma-amṛtam — eternal religious principle of Kṛṣṇa consciousness; idam — this; yathā-uktam — as mentioned above; paryupāsate — worship; śraddadhānāḥ — having faith and devotion; mat-paramāḥ — accepting Me as the Supreme or the ultimate goal of life; bhaktāḥ — such devotees; te — they; atīva — very; me — to Me; priyāḥ — dear.
Translation: 
“ ‘Devotees who follow these imperishable religious principles of Kṛṣṇa consciousness with great faith and devotion, fully accepting Me as the supreme goal, are very, very dear to Me.’

CC Madhya 23.114

cīrāṇi kiṁ pathi na santi diśanti bhikṣāṁ
naivāṅghri-pāḥ para-bhṛtaḥ sarito ’py aśuṣyan
ruddhā guhāḥ kim ajito ’vati nopasannān
kasmād bhajanti kavayo dhana-durmadāndhān
Word for word: 
cīrāṇi — torn old clothes; kim — whether; pathi — on the path; na — not; santi — are; diśanti — give; bhikṣām — alms; na — not; eva — certainly; aṅghri-pāḥ — the trees; para-bhṛtaḥ — maintainers of others; saritaḥ — rivers; api — also; aśuṣyan — have dried up; ruddhāḥ — closed; guhāḥ — caves; kim — whether; ajitaḥ — the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is unconquerable; avati — protects; na — not; upasannān — the surrendered; kasmāt — for what reason, therefore; bhajanti — flatter; kavayaḥ — the devotees; dhana-durmada-andhān — persons who are puffed up with material possessions.
Translation: 
“ ‘Are there no torn clothes lying on the common road? Do the trees, which exist for maintaining others, no longer give alms in charity? Do the rivers, being dried up, no longer supply water to the thirsty? Are the caves of the mountains now closed, or, above all, does the unconquerable Supreme Personality of Godhead not protect the fully surrendered souls? Why then should learned persons like devotees go to flatter those who are intoxicated by hard-earned wealth?’ ”
Purport: 

This is a quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (2.2.5). In this verse, Śukadeva Gosvāmī advises Mahārāja Parīkṣit that a devotee should be independent in all circumstances. The body can be maintained with no problem if one follows the instructions given in this verse. To maintain the body, we require shelter, food, water and clothing, and all these necessities can be obtained without approaching puffed-up rich men. One can collect old garments that have been thrown out, one can eat fruits offered by the trees, one can drink water from the rivers, and one can live within the caves of mountains. By nature’s arrangements, shelter, clothing and food are supplied to the devotee who is completely surrendered to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Such a devotee does not need a puffed-up materialistic person to maintain him. In other words, devotional service can be discharged in any condition. This is the version of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.2.6):

sa vai puṁsāṁ paro dharmoyato bhaktir adhokṣaje
ahaituky apratihatā
yayātmā suprasīdati

“The supreme occupation [dharma] for all humanity is that by which men can attain to loving devotional service unto the transcendent Lord. Such devotional service must be unmotivated and uninterrupted in order to completely satisfy the self.” This verse explains that devotional service cannot be checked by any material condition.

CC Madhya 23.115

tabe sanātana saba siddhānta puchilā
bhāgavata-siddhānta gūḍha sakali kahilā
Word for word: 
tabe — thereafter; sanātana — Sanātana Gosvāmī; saba — all; siddhānta — conclusive statements; puchilā — inquired about; bhāgavata-siddhānta — the conclusive statements about devotional service mentioned in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam; gūḍha — very confidential; sakali — all; kahilā — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu described.
Translation: 
Thereafter Sanātana Gosvāmī inquired from Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu about all the conclusive statements concerning devotional service, and the Lord very vividly explained all the confidential meanings of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.

CC Madhya 23.116

hari-vaṁśe kahiyāche goloke nitya-sthiti
indra āsi’ karila yabe śrī-kṛṣṇere stuti
Word for word: 
hari-vaṁśe — the revealed scripture known as Hari-vaṁśa; kahiyāche — has told of; goloke — on the planet called Goloka; nitya-sthiti — the eternal situation; indra — King Indra of the heavenly planets; āsi’ — coming; karila — offered; yabe — when; śrī-kṛṣṇere stuti — prayers to Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa.
Translation: 
In the revealed scripture Hari-vaṁśa, there is a description of Goloka Vṛndāvana, the planet where Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa eternally resides. This information was given by King Indra when he surrendered to Kṛṣṇa and offered prayers after Kṛṣṇa had raised Govardhana Hill.
Purport: 

In the Vedic scripture Hari-vaṁśa (Viṣṇu-parva, chapter nineteen), there is the following description of Goloka Vṛndāvana:

manuṣya-lokād ūrdhvaṁ tukhagānāṁ gatir ucyate
ākāśasyopari ravir
dvāraṁ svargasya bhānumān
svargād ūrdhvaṁ brahma-loko
brahmarṣi-gaṇa-sevitaḥ

tatra soma-gatiś caivajyotiṣāṁ ca mahātmanām
tasyopari gavāṁ lokaḥ
sādhyās taṁ pālayanti hi
sa hi sarva-gataḥ kṛṣṇaḥ
mahā-kāśa-gato mahān

upary upari tatrāpigatis tava tapo-mayī
yāṁ na vidmo vayaṁ sarve
pṛcchanto ’pi pitām aham

gatiḥ śama-damāṭyānāṁsvargaḥ su-kṛta-karmaṇām
brāhmye tapasi yuktānāṁ
brahma-lokaḥ parā gatiḥ

gavām eva tu golokodurārohā hi sā gatiḥ
sa tu lokas tvayā kṛṣṇa
sīdamānaḥ kṛtātmanā
dhṛto dhṛtimatā vīra
nighnatopadravān gavām

When the King of heaven, Indra, surrendered to Kṛṣṇa after Kṛṣṇa had raised Govardhana Hill, Lord Indra stated that above the planetary systems wherein human beings reside is the sky, where birds fly. Above the sky is the sun and its orbit. This is the entrance to the heavenly planets. Above the heavenly planets are other planets, up to Brahmaloka, where those advancing in spiritual knowledge reside. The planets up to Brahmaloka are part of the material world (Devī-dhāma). Because the material world is under the control of Devī, Durgā, it is called Devī-dhāma. Above Devī-dhāma is a place where Lord Śiva and his wife Umā reside. Those brightened by spiritual knowledge and liberated from material contamination reside in that Śivaloka. Beyond that planetary system is the spiritual world, where there are planets called Vaikuṇṭhalokas. Goloka Vṛndāvana is situated above all the Vaikuṇṭhalokas. Goloka Vṛndāvana is the kingdom of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī and the parents of Kṛṣṇa, Mahārāja Nanda and mother Yaśodā. In this way there are various planetary systems, and they are all creations of the Supreme Lord. As stated in the Brahma-saṁhitā (5.43):

goloka-nāmni nija-dhāmni tale ca tasya
devī-maheśa-hari-dhāmasu teṣu teṣu
te te prabhāva-nicayā vihitāś ca yena
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

“Below the planet named Goloka Vṛndāvana are the planets known as Devī-dhāma, Maheśa-dhāma and Hari-dhāma. These are opulent in different ways. They are managed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Govinda, the original Lord. I offer my obeisances unto Him.”

Thus Goloka Vṛndāvana-dhāma is situated above the Vaikuṇṭha planets. The spiritual sky containing all the Vaikuṇṭha planets is very small compared to Goloka Vṛndāvana-dhāma. The space occupied by Goloka Vṛndāvana-dhāma is called mahākāśa, or “the greatest sky of all.” Lord Indra said, “We asked Lord Brahmā about Your eternal planet, but we could not understand it. Those fruitive actors who have controlled their senses and mind with pious activities can be elevated to the heavenly planets. Pure devotees who are always engaged in Lord Nārāyaṇa’s service are promoted to the Vaikuṇṭha-lokas. However, my Lord Kṛṣṇa, Your Goloka Vṛndāvana-dhāma is very difficult to attain. Yet both You and that supreme planetary system have descended here upon this earth. Unfortunately, I have disturbed You by my misdeeds, and that was due to my foolishness. I am therefore trying to satisfy You by my prayers.”

Śrī Nīlakaṇṭha confirms the existence of Goloka Vṛndāvana-dhāma by quoting the Ṛg-saṁhitā (Ṛg Veda 1.154.6):

tā vāṁ vāstūny uśmasi gamadhyai
yatra gāvo bhūri-śṛṅgā ayāsaḥ
atrāha tad urugāyasya kṛṣṇaḥ
paramaṁ padam avabhāti bhūri

“We wish to go to Your [Rādhā’s and Kṛṣṇa’s] beautiful houses, about which cows with large, excellent horns are wandering. Yet distinctly shining on this earth is that supreme abode of Yours that showers joy on all, O Urugāya [Kṛṣṇa, who is much praised].”

CC Madhya 23.117-118

mauṣala-līlā, āra kṛṣṇa-antardhāna
keśāvatāra, āra yata viruddha vyākhyāna
mahiṣī-haraṇa ādi, saba — māyāmaya
vyākhyā śikhāila yaiche susiddhānta haya
Word for word: 
mauṣala-līlā — the pastimes of destroying the Yadu dynasty; āra — also; kṛṣṇa-antardhāna — the disappearance of Kṛṣṇa; keśa-avatāra — the incarnation of the hairs; āra — also; yata — all; viruddha vyākhyāna — statements against the Kṛṣṇa conscious conclusions; mahiṣī-haraṇa — kidnapping of the queens; ādi — and so on; saba — all; māyā-maya — made of the external energy; vyākhyā — explanations (countering the attack of the asuras); śikhāila — instructed; yaiche — which; su-siddhānta — proper conclusions; haya — are.
Translation: 
Illusory stories opposed to the conclusions of Kṛṣṇa consciousness concern the destruction of the Yadu dynasty, Kṛṣṇa’s disappearance, the story that Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma arise from a black hair and a white hair of Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu, and the story about the kidnapping of the queens. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu explained to Sanātana Gosvāmī the proper conclusions of these stories.
Purport: 

Due to envy, many asuras describe Kṛṣṇa to be like a black crow or an incarnation of a hair. Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu told Sanātana Gosvāmī how to counteract all these asuric explanations of Kṛṣṇa. The word kāka means crow, and keśa means hair. The asuras describe Kṛṣṇa as an incarnation of a crow, an incarnation of a śūdra (a blackish tribe) and an incarnation of a hair, not knowing that the word keśa means ka-īśa and that ka means Lord Brahmā and īśa means Lord. Thus the word keśa indicates that Kṛṣṇa is the Lord of Lord Brahmā.

Some of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes are mentioned in the Mahābhārata as mauṣala-līlā. These include the stories of the destruction of the Yadu dynasty, Kṛṣṇa’s disappearance, His being pierced by a hunter’s arrow, the story of Kṛṣṇa’s being an incarnation of a piece of hair (keśa-avatāra) as well as mahiṣī-haraṇa, the kidnapping of Kṛṣṇa’s queens. Actually these are not factual but are related for the bewilderment of the asuras, who want to prove that Kṛṣṇa is an ordinary human being. They are false in the sense that these pastimes are not eternal, nor are they transcendental or spiritual. There are many people who are by nature averse to the supremacy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Viṣṇu. Such people are called asuras. They have mistaken ideas about Kṛṣṇa. As stated in the Bhagavad-gītā, the asuras are given a chance to forget Kṛṣṇa more and more, birth after birth. Thus they make their appearance in a family of asuras and continue this process, being kept in bewilderment about Kṛṣṇa. Asuras in the dress of sannyāsīs even explain the Bhagavad-gītā and Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam in different ways according to their own imaginations. Thus they continue to remain asuras birth after birth.

As far as the keśa-avatāra (incarnation of a hair) is concerned, it is mentioned in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (2.7.26). The Viṣṇu Purāṇa also states, ujjahārātmanaḥ keśau sita-kṛṣṇau mahā-bala.

Similarly, it is stated in the Mahābhārata (Ādi-parva 189.31-32):

sa cāpi keśau harir uccakarta
ekaṁ śuklam aparaṁ cāpi kṛṣṇam
tau cāpi keśāv āviśatāṁ yadūnāṁ
kule striyau rohiṇīṁ devakīṁ ca

tayor eko balabhadro babhūva
yo ’sau śvetas tasya devasya keśaḥ
kṛṣṇo dvitīyaḥ keśavaḥ sambabhūva
keśaḥ yo ’sau varṇataḥ kṛṣṇa uktaḥ

Thus in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, the Viṣṇu Purāṇa and the Mahābhārata there are references to Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma being incarnations of a black hair and a white hair respectively. It is stated that Lord Viṣṇu snatched two hairs — one white and one black — from His head. These two hairs entered the wombs of Rohiṇī and Devakī, members of the Yadu dynasty. Balarāma was born from Rohiṇī, and Kṛṣṇa was born of Devakī. Thus Balarāma appeared from the first hair, and Kṛṣṇa appeared from the second hair. It was also foretold that all the asuras, who are enemies of the demigods, would be cut down by Lord Viṣṇu by His white and black plenary expansions and that the Supreme Personality of Godhead would appear and perform wonderful activities. In this connection, one should see the Laghu-bhāgavatāmṛta, the chapter called Kṛṣṇāmṛta, verses 156-164. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī has refuted this argument about the hair incarnation, and his refutation is supported by Śrī Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa’s commentaries. This matter is further discussed in the Kṛṣṇa-sandarbha (29) and in the commentary known as Sarva-saṁvādinī, by Śrīla Jīva Gosvāmī.

CC Madhya 23.119

tabe sanātana prabhura caraṇe dhariyā
nivedana kare dante tṛṇa-guccha lañā
Word for word: 
tabe — at that time; sanātana — Sanātana Gosvāmī; prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; caraṇe dhariyā — catching the lotus feet; nivedana kare — submits a petition; dante — in the teeth; tṛṇa-guccha — a bunch of straw; lañā — taking.
Translation: 
Sanātana Gosvāmī then humbly accepted his position as lower than a piece of straw, and symbolically holding some straw in his mouth, he fell down, clasped the lotus feet of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and submitted the following petition.

CC Madhya 23.120

“nīca-jāti, nīca-sevī, muñi — supāmara
siddhānta śikhāilā, — yei brahmāra agocara
Word for word: 
nīca-jāti — lower class; nīca-sevī — servant of lowborn people; muñi — I; supāmara — very, very fallen; siddhānta śikhāilā — You have taught the topmost conclusions in detail; yei — which; brahmāra — of Brahmā; agocara — beyond the reach.
Translation: 
Sanātana Gosvāmī said, “My dear Lord, I am a very lowborn person. Indeed, I am a servant to lowborn people; therefore I am very, very downtrodden. Nonetheless, You have taught me conclusions unknown even to Lord Brahmā.

CC Madhya 23.121

tumi ye kahilā, ei siddhāntāmṛta-sindhu
mora mana chuṅite nāre ihāra eka-bindu
Word for word: 
tumi ye — You; kahilā — have spoken; ei — this; siddhānta-amṛta-sindhu — the ocean of the ambrosia of conclusive truth; mora mana — my mind; chuṅite — to touch; nāre — is not able; ihāra — of it; eka-bindu — even a drop.
Translation: 
“The conclusions that You have told me are the ocean of the ambrosia of truth. My mind is unable to approach even a drop of that ocean.

CC Madhya 23.122

paṅgu nācāite yadi haya tomāra mana
vara deha’ mora māthe dhariyā caraṇa
Word for word: 
paṅgu — lame man; nācāite — to make dance; yadi — if; haya — it is; tomāra mana — Your mind; vara — a benediction; deha’ — kindly give; mora māthe — on my head; dhariyā — holding; caraṇa — Your lotus feet.
Translation: 
“If You want to make a lame man like me dance, kindly bestow Your transcendental blessings by placing Your lotus feet on my head.

CC Madhya 23.123

‘muñi ye śikhāluṅ tore sphuruka sakala’
ei tomāra vara haite habe mora bala”
Word for word: 
muñi — I; ye — whatever; śikhāluṅ — have instructed; tore — unto you; sphuruka sakala — let it be manifested; ei — this; tomāra vara — Your benediction; haite — from; habe — there will be; mora bala — my strength.
Translation: 
“Now, will You please tell me, ‘Let whatever I have instructed all be fully manifested unto you.’ By blessing me in this way, You will give me strength to describe all this.”

CC Madhya 23.124

tabe mahāprabhu tāṅra śire dhari’ kare
vara dilā — ‘ei saba sphuruka tomāre’
Word for word: 
tabe — after that; mahāprabhu — Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; tāṅra — of Sanātana Gosvāmī; śire — on the head; dhari’ — holding; kare — by the hand; vara dilā — gave the benediction; ei saba — all this; sphuruka tomāre — let it be manifested to you properly.
Translation: 
Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu then placed His hand on Sanātana Gosvāmī’s head and blessed him, saying, “Let all these instructions be manifested to you.”

CC Madhya 23.125

saṅkṣepe kahiluṅ — ‘prema’-prayojana-saṁvāda
vistāri’ kahana nā yāya prabhura prasāda
Word for word: 
saṅkṣepe — briefly; kahiluṅ — I have described; prema-prayojana-saṁvāda — the discussion of the ultimate goal of life, love of Godhead; vistāri’ — expansively; kahana — describing; yāya — not possible; prabhura prasāda — the benediction of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.
Translation: 
Thus I have briefly described a discussion of the ultimate goal of life, love of Godhead. The mercy of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu cannot be described expansively.

CC Madhya 23.126

prabhura upadeśāmṛta śune yei jana
acirāt milaye tāṅre kṛṣṇa-prema-dhana
Word for word: 
prabhura — of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu; upadeśa-amṛta — the nectar of the instructions; śune — hears; yei jana — anyone who; acirāt — without delay; milaye — meets; tāṅre — him; kṛṣṇa-prema-dhana — the treasure of love of Kṛṣṇa.
Translation: 
Whoever hears these instructions given to Sanātana Gosvāmī by the Lord comes very soon to realize love of God, Kṛṣṇa.

CC Madhya 23.127

śrī-rūpa-raghunātha-pade yāra āśa
caitanya-caritāmṛta kahe kṛṣṇadāsa
Word for word: 
śrī-rūpa — Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī; raghunātha — Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī; pade — at the lotus feet; yāra — whose; āśa — expectation; caitanya-caritāmṛta — the book named Caitanya-caritāmṛta; kahe — describes; kṛṣṇadāsa — Śrīla Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī.
Translation: 
Praying at the lotus feet of Śrī Rūpa and Śrī Raghunātha, always desiring their mercy, I, Kṛṣṇadāsa, narrate Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, following in their footsteps.
Purport: 

Thus end the Bhaktivedanta purports to Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā, twenty-third chapter, describing love of Godhead.