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atha cāpūryamāṇābhiś ca kalābhir amarāṇāṁ kṣīyamāṇābhiś ca kalābhiḥ pitṝṇām aho-rātrāṇi pūrva-pakṣāpara-pakṣābhyāṁ vitanvānaḥ sarva-jīva-nivaha-prāṇo jīvaś caikam ekaṁ nakṣatraṁ triṁśatā muhūrtair bhuṅkte.
Word for word:
atha — thus; ca — also; āpūryamāṇābhiḥ — gradually increasing; ca — and; kalābhiḥ — by the parts of the moon; amarāṇām — of the demigods; kṣīyamāṇābhiḥ — by gradually decreasing; ca — and; kalābhiḥ — by parts of the moon; pitṝṇām — of those on the planet known as Pitṛloka; ahaḥ-rātrāṇi — the days and nights; pūrva-pakṣa-apara-pakṣābhyām — by the period of waxing and waning; vitanvānaḥ — distributing; sarva-jīva-nivaha — of the total living entities; prāṇaḥ — the life; jīvaḥ — the chief living being; ca — also; ekam ekam — one after another; nakṣatram — a constellation of stars; triṁśatā — by thirty; muhūrtaiḥ — muhūrtas; bhuṅkte — passes through.
When the moon is waxing, the illuminating portions of it increase daily, thus creating day for the demigods and night for the pitās. When the moon is waning, however, it causes night for the demigods and day for the pitās. In this way the moon passes through each constellation of stars in thirty muhūrtas [an entire day]. The moon is the source of nectarean coolness that influences the growth of food grains, and therefore the moon-god is considered the life of all living entities. He is consequently called Jīva, the chief living being within the universe.